The four caliphs were the wise. They were four friends who was elected as leader of the Muslims after the Prophet Muhammad died. Fourth kholifah these are:
1. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq ra.;
2. Umar bin Kaththab ra.;
3. Uthman ibn Affan may Allah.; And
4. Ali ibn Abi Talib ra.
Fourth kholifah besides the Prophet managed to continue the struggle. uphold the teachings of monotheism, as well as successful deployment and expand it the name of Islam. Here we describe a bit of history alive and services kholifah the fourth.
A. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq ra (11-13 H/632-634)
His real name was Abdul Ka'aba. Then the Prophet Muhammad. changed his name to Abdullah. Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafah at-Tamimi. He was born of the couple Usman (Abu Quhafah) bin Amir and Umm Salma bint Khoir Sakhr, who came from the tribe of Taim, who gave birth rate figures terhomat.
Since childhood he was known as a good boy. His behavior is gentle, honest, and patient, making it desirable community. Because of its properties that is noble since his teenage years he was friendly with the Prophet Muhammad.
He was born two years and one month after the birth of Prophet Muhammad. then known by the nickname Abu Bakr Siddiq while the title given by the friends, because he really justify Muhammad in all respects. It was he who accompanied the Prophet Muhammad. in the cave of Hira, and the first convert to Islam from among the elderly gentleman. About Abu Bakr ra., Messenger of Allah. said, "It's people who are closest to me of friendship and his wealth, is Abu Bakr. If I could choose between umnatku Ternan, rnaka I would choose Abu Bakr. But the love and the brotherhood of Islam dalarn sufficient. None rnasjid dalarn door open unless the door of Abu Bakr ". (Narrated by Bukhari) To date in the mosque of Medina still there is a door called the door of Abu Bakr ra. That is the door that he always went through during her lifetime if it entered the mosque through his house.
Not surprising that as the Prophet peace be upon him sick, he was trusted by his companions became Imam prayer. Also it is worth if the Muslims and then select it as kholifah / leader after Muhammad died.
Abu Bakr greatness of personality can be seen from the fragments of his speech when inducted into kholifah, among others, he said, "I am not the best person among you, but I will maintain a trustful that you submit to me. If I follow the teachings of Allah and His Messenger instructions, so follow me. Conversely, if I deviate, make straight (Correct) me. Truth is honesty, and falsehood is dishonesty. The most powerful person in my view, are those weak of you so I will guarantee their rights. And those most vulnerable in my view, are the people who strong among you, and I'll take some of their rights (zakat). "
The first program launched by Abu Bakr after he became kholifah, is dampen the rebellion, fighting those who rebelled do not want to pay zakat, those apostates that when it happens everywhere and cause chaos. After the death of the Messenger Muhammad peace be upon him., There are many Muslims who embrace his religion back to its original. They feel entitled to do as the liver. Even more tragic longer appears the people who claimed prophet, among others, Al-Kadzdzab Musallamah, Tulaiha Al-Asadi, and al-Aswad al-Ansi.
To straighten out the creed of those apostates, Abu Bakr sent eleven combat troops to eleven destinations, among them Khalid forces b 'Walid al-Asadi was assigned subduing Thulaiha, Amer bin Ash Forces stationed in Qudho'ah, Suwaid bin Muqrim assigned to Yemen, and Khalid bin Said Syam assigned.
Abu Bakr next program, memproyekkan collection and writing of the verses of the Qur'an. This program as announced on the proposal while Umar bin Khoththob implementation in entrusted to Zaid b 'Thabit.
Gathering and writing the verses of the Qur'an was done with consideration of:
1. Many of the companions who memorized al Qur'an fall dalsm war crackdown heretics;
2. Verses of the Qur'an written on palm shells, stones and wood are much damaged that it needs to do the rescue effort;
3. Writing verses of the Qur'an and makes it as book is intended to be used as guidance for Muslims throughout the ages.
During his reign, Abu Bakr also managed to expand the mission area Islamiyah, including to Iraq when it included the colonies of the Persian Empire, and to Sham that under the Roman empire. In his era he could make all of people know that islam is peaceful religion.
Having ruled for two years, Abu Bakr passed away into Rahmatullah on 23 Jumada End 13h in the age of 63 years and is buried near the tomb of the Prophet. He was known by the
kholifah friend as a very obedient to Allah and His Messenger and the virtuous.
B. Umar bin Khatthab (13-23 H/634-644 M)
He was thirteen years younger than the Prophet Muhammad. Since he was already famous kedl intelligent and brave. It was never afraid to express the truth in front of anyone. It is not surprising that after Umar embraced Islam, the Muslims feared by row of the unbelievers of Quraysh. He was the most daring before embracing Islam against Islam, after embracing Islam's most daring to face the enemies of Islam. Then Omar famous as the "Lion of the Desert" are highly respected.
Umar has a very strong personality, and resolute struggle for the truth. Therefore, people called him Al Faruq, meaning that explicitly distinguish between right and wrong. Umar so persistent in enforcing Islamic law, so that Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "Since we are precious Umar Islam." (Reported by Bukhari)
Regarding the quality of his faith, expressed in a hadith. Messenger Muhammad peace be upon him. said, "While I was sleeping, I dreamed I saw people wearing robe. There are gamisnya over his chest and some are less. Then 'Umar bin Khoththob shown to me wearing a long robe, so he walked by dragging it. "Someone asked," O Muhammad, whether its interpretation? "Prophet. explains, "The quality of his faith." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri ra.)
In his inaugural address, delivered Omar, among others: "I am a follower of Sunnah, not an act of heresy. Know that you are entitled to sue me about three things in addition to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet, namely:
1. Following what has been done by people before me in trouble have you agreed and you have tradisikan;
2. Creating new habits that are good for virtue experts in the problem that you have not made the habit and
3. Prevent me from acting upon you except in terms of things that you own cause.
In the reign of Caliph Umar, the Islamic region extends to Egypt, Iraq, Sham, and other Persian countries. Umar was the first form of judicial bodies and improve governance. Also continued efforts in recording of Abu Bakr Al Qur-an.
Kholifah Umar died at the age of 63 years after a reign of ten years and six months. He died by the sword thrust Abu Lu'lu'ah, a slave owned by Al-Mughiroh bin Syu'bah during morning prayers. He diimakamkan at home 'Aisha, near the tomb of Abu Bakr. He is remembered by Muslims as a hero who is very simple, sportsmanship, and love the little people. Said he is very famous, "Who looks at me turn, then let him straighten it out."
Services as a Kholifah Omar, among others:
1. Determination of AH as the official year;
2. Customs as income countries;
3. Social benefits for poor people among the Jews and Christians;
4. Development of cities and waterways to improve the welfare of his subjects;
5. Salaries for priests and the muezzin;
6. Abolition of slavery;
7. Construction of schools;
8. Codification of the Quran;
9. Tradition tarawih prayer in congregation;
10. Show that islam is peaceful religion.
C. Uthman ibn Affan RA. (23-35 H/644-656 M)
He was a wealthy merchant, and co-author of the famous revelation. She was five years younger than the Prophet Muhammad. Since young Uthman known as a quiet man, and having manners are commendable. he who bought Roumah wells to serve the public well. So many virtues charity, so that people called "Ghoniyyun Shakir" (the rich are most grateful to Allah SWT)
Abdurrohman bin Samuroh ra. revealed, Uthman ibn Affan came to Muhammad peace be upon him. with the money as much as a thousand dinars wrapped in clothes. At that time he was preparing u'sroh (forces in the Battle of Tabuk). After receiving donations from Ustman bin Affan RA. Fisabilillah for jihad, the Prophet. said, "There is no adverse ibn Affan for what he did after today." He repeated these words several times. (Narrated by Ahmad, and Tirmidhi)
Although wealthy, Uthman never keep a distance with lower social classes, even he did not hesitate to fight segann to participate. Because that's kindness, he married the daughter of the Prophet named Ruqoyyah. After Ruqoiyah died, he married the daughter of the Prophet again named Umm Kulthum. Therefore called society "Dzun Nurain" (which has two light)
The steps undertaken by the Caliph Uthman ra., Was replacing the state governors of the Islamic conquests to secede after Umar's death. He then reproduce the text of Al Qur-an yan already recorded a seven copies of, among others, sent to Sham, Yemen, Bahrain, Basroh, and Kufa.
Uthman died at the age of 82, after ruling for 12 years. He met his fate while reading the Quran by the thrust of the sword Humron son of Sudan. Uthman's greatest service was to take care of Al Qur-an as the spread today.By looking him, all people could understood that islam is peaceful religion.
D. Ali ibn Abu Tholib ra. (35-40 H/656-661 M)
He is the son of Abu Tholib, uncle of the Prophet Muhammad. As a cousin who was 32 years younger, allowing Ali cared for directly by the Prophet Muhammad. It is not megherankan if the class of children who first embraced Islam was Ali. Ali is worth if knowledge about Islam is very broad, and very firm hold of Islamic teachings.
Since this is the reign of Caliph Ali, Islam began to decline. Starting from the many parties who demanded revenge for the murder of Uthman ibn Affan RA., Especially from among the Bani Umaiyyah of group 'A'ishah., Widow of the Prophet Muhammad. The atmosphere is more heated by the wisdom of the Caliph Ali to replace most of the government officials who had been appointed by Uthman.
After the attempt to calm a lot of groups who demand revenge for the death of Uthman by peaceful means do not succeed, then ditempuhlah with war. First there was the War Waq'atul Jamali (naming it as' Aisha rode a camel with his army) or camel war. Secondly, War or wars camel Shiffin between Caliph Ali's troops and the troops' Aisha. This civil war occurred in the year 36 H/657 AD, due to incitement Abdullah bin Saba. The war was won by Ali's forces. After being briefed about the case that the actual seat, 'Aisha returned
Show to the world that islam is peaceful religion