Friday, 9 December 2011
PHENOMENON OF TERRORISM IN INDONESIA
By: Ibi Syatibi, M.S.I
Between Movement-Political Theology and Religious Extremist
Islam is peaceful religion, so islam reject terrorism
One very interesting study of the 21st century and to this day is how to explain the action of radicalism and terrorism in Indonesia. Allegations addressed to Islamic terrorism, for some people actually emerged as a result of the behavior of some Muslims. In addition, misunderstanding among Muslims themselves who tend literalistik in understanding religious texts (al-Qur'an and al-Hadith) has added a stronger factor the issue of terrorism.  This is reinforced by the attitudes and religious expression "partial" Muslims tend to be exclusive and often justify the understanding of Islam, whom are considered most correct. Elements that had spread, not just a battle between religious ideology, but also opens up a wide discourse of terrorism in the world. Especially in a global context, post-collapse of the WTC in USA in 2001, terrorism has the support of religious radicalism and fundamentalism is often the object of the alleged perpetrators of the bombing. Of course, these phenomena on the one hand further strengthen Western suspicions against the Muslim world,  on the other hand can be rebutted many circles, especially the internal Islam itself which says that not all terrorist acts that represent the Muslim community. 
Acts of terror in Indonesia during this decade may have occurred pda tragedy JW Marriot bombing, Bali bombing I, Brass bombing, Bali bombing II, and the Ritz-Carlton Jakarta and the latter occurred in Cirebon City Police Headquarters. The terror is not unlike an opera and orchestra vulgar dehumanization of a global project, total, syumul and kaffah. Not infrequently the terrorists are doing all of that to meet the demands of theology that they understand. Islam teaches its followers as a loyal and fanatical to perform acts of terror as a form of faith. Theological doctrine they even claim the truth that God had instructed him to do everything possible to defend his religion.  This is what brings us to continue to say, if they do it all with the name of defending God and apply the message of the Apostle, then this is an insult, pengkoyakan, shredding and distortion of the sacred religious texts. 
During its development, the case of WTC good episode i episode II in 1993 and 2001, the Pentagon and bombings in the country have formed an opinion that Islam - or fundamentalist Muslims-has been "accused" of these terrorist incidents. Allegations of this kind is actually not new to Muslims. Since the early days when the hegemony of Western civilization increasingly menggurita in different parts of the Islamic world, emerging groups of Muslims who tried to take the fight ideologically against the West and often in ways that could provoke violence. So also with the concept of jihad, often linked and even made the legitimacy of cases that lead to terrorism.
This paper seeks trace the terrorist movement influenced diapora theological-political movements and religious Extremist. Although not easy to decipher the explanation of this theme, the authors attempt to capture a casuistic in Indonesia and connect with global movement of crime there, starring Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah and al-Qaeda, two extreme organizations in the name of Islam and is often responsible for a series of action terror in various parts of the world, especially Western and Middle East. This is considering that the phenomenon of radical Islam in Indonesia is not a new phenomenon, because this movement has historical ties and the Muslims in this country under the influence of Islamic fundamentalism and global terrorism. Therefore, the problem of terrorism with Islamic fundamentalism and even radical Islam can not be separated.
B. Islamic Fundamentalism and Terrorism: Between Image and Reality
In this decade, the term fundamentalism and terrorism are very closely related to the Islamic world. This phenomenon is on the one hand the negative impact with a cornered position and disturbing and Islam and its adherents, on the other hand this term also applies to other forms of crime which is basically detrimental to the continuity of the universal history of human civilization. In this context, the approach and methodology in the study and understanding of Islam becomes the main cause of the emergence of various acts of terror. This phenomenon is often the case in the trajectory of the history of Muslims. Just because a difference of opinion, sometimes it must be "solved" with terrorist acts. Emerging concept in Islamic studies often sparked debate that eventually became a kind of snowball to make an conflict. Therefore, in Indonesia it like this often lead to conflict among Muslims. Classical issues such as; jih! D, QIS! S, Shari'ah, caliphate, and daulah, often the cause of conflict in the midst of the people, moreover, if these concepts serve as the agenda of political struggle. The emergence of terrorist charges against some Muslims are often associated with the phenomenon of the rise of radicalism in the Muslim majority. In fact, the emergence of Islamic fundamentalism is not only internal factors influenced the Muslim-West in this case -, but also appeared affected by the global geopolitics. Many among those who indicated that what was done among contemporary Islamic fundamentalism is actually just go ahead and follow the ideals of the movement initiated by their former leaders. Meanwhile, for observers who put the external factors in the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism usually attribute the reason to the argument that its emergence is suspected as a form of counter-part of liberal-modern thought and modern Western World. 
Historical studies ever conducted Murba Abu,  wrote ten factors that influence the growth of radicalism in kalanga Muslims in Indonesia. The ten factors are proposed to mention some of the actors involved. However, because of close related factors, the authors summarize the five factors. First, due to the issue of political disappointment "Jakarta Charter" that did not work serve as the basis of the Indonesian state. Kartosuwiryo, figures Masyumi shed his disappointment with the hardliner-proclaimed Islamic State of Indonesia (NII) in August 1948. This phenomenon is increasingly widened in Aceh led by David Beureueh and Kahar Muzakkar in Sulawesi. Radicalism can be traced to the momentum of the formation of DI / TII which became the forerunner of the struggle to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia.  Second, due to the behavior and the New Order political pressure. Political participation of Muslims in this era of government deemed unprofitable and as a result of the state apparatus to close the tap-taps Muslim political.  The group was suppressed by the government of Indonesia due to have an agenda to change the principles of Pancasila and establish an Islamic state. Abdullah Sungkar and Abu Bakar Bashir who never leave their homeland and live in the land neighbor is suspected as a political victim of the New Order. Although difficult to prove, do not be surprised if both are to consolidate and mobilize resources through the network to receive military training opportunities in Peshawar.
Third, a group inspired by the Iranian Revolutionary Movement in 1979 and Middle Eastern Islamic movement. In addition to inspiring a revolution spearheaded by Khomeini in Iran, this group also drew inspiration mainly model the movement of al-brothers formed the Moslem al-Hasan al-Banna in Egypt. In the contemporary developments in Indonesia, this group did metamorphosis is varied, from political parties, social organizations, religious, missionary movement to campus. Surge disseminated by this group of Muslims based on the slump caused more secular Western political systems. As a counter it, they develop the Islamic revival formalism based on the merging of Islam and Islamic movements and politics.  According to Abu Murba, this group is at least spread out in three segments as the implications of different cohesiveness, which is doing the action in the organization KAMMI (Unity Indonesian Muslim Student Action), through political parties, the PKS (Prosperous Justice Party). At the beginning of its formation, the party is blowing the issue of formal Islam, Islamic law, until the caliphate, but later sank and claimed the issue was to open up as the party of "inclusive". And the third through Islamic organizations, such as MMI, Laskar Jihad, FPI, and Ansorut Tawhid, another fraction of MMI. The history of Laskar Jihad, for example, never 'engage' or entangled 'apparatus' in the field of conflict in Maluku and Ambon, in response to the issue of religious sentiment, which is Christianization. 
Fourth, a group of boarding schools. This group was raised as a result of the emergence of the perpetrators of bombing in various places in Indonesia is an alumnus of several right-wing schools. No wonder the United States and its allies accuse pesantren as a nest of terrorists. This global assumption in fact very difficult to accept, given the history of boarding schools in Indonesia have strong roots in Islamic traditionalism and acculturative propaganda. However, there are at least three boarding schools are often referred to in the discourse of radical Islam in Indonesia, namely in Surakarta Ngruki pesantren leader Abu Bakar Bashir, al-Olive in Indramayu leader Abu Toto, and Al-Islam boarding school in Lamongan. 
Fifth, as part of a transnational Islamic organization. Organization of the Islamic transnational diaspora have a fertile, well before the issue of terrorism in Indonesia appear. Some transnational Islamic organization is a lot of acting in the field of propaganda, such as the Ahmadis in India, Darul Arqom in Malaysia, Hizbu Da'watil al-Islamiyah in Iraq, Jama'at Islami in India and Pakistan, the Jama'at al-Ikhwan al-Muslims in Egypt, Jam'iyat al-Dawa al-Islamiyya in Libya, al-A'la Majlisul Shu'unil Islamiyya in Egypt, and Rabitatul 'Natural Islami in Saudi Arabia.  The resources owned by these organizations terbilan very strong, both in the field of financial networks and supporting the international stage. Chris Wilson has a strong suspicion that radicalism and terrorism in Indonesia has a relationship that is strongly associated with a network of international terrorism.  In addition to transnational Islamic organizations, the two organizations, namely al-Qaeda and al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyya often fill of radicalism and terrorism issues that are transnational. In fact, the organizers have important items that can help fight and the one that was a book of his struggle.
C. Al-Qa'idah: Alliance Politics and Religion
Al-Qa'idah and Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah organization are two names that are often associated with a network of transnational terrorism. Moreover, referring to the report ICG (International Crisis Group) led by Sidney Jones, the two organizations is not only touted as the party responsible for the occurrence of numerous acts of terror in various parts of the world, but also has a vast network, Indonesia is no exception. Countries that have a historical background to the various events insurgency against the government in the name of 'Islamic State' is a strategic area for the seedbed of Islamic hardliners, especially the country has beragaman majority Muslim population. No wonder if the momentum of the fall of New Order regarded as a political opportunity for the diaspora and the radical fundamentalist Islamic movement grew. On behalf of the democratic system, a radical organization with a variety of networks that have seemed to find the swaying grass and can be played in order to take the sympathy of Muslims in Indonesia. 
Nevertheless, the report itself owned by Sidney Jones he had difficulty convincing the connectedness with the Al-Qa'idah and Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah. He doubted the existence of an intense relationship between Abu Bakar Bashir, a lead Ngruki boarding school, with Hambali which according to Sidney is a respected figure in the circle of al-Qa'idah in Southeast Asia.  Inevitably, allegations of U.S. and Western countries Another of the pesantren in Indonesia as a nest of terrorists is not justified. However, the question arises of vulgar associated with many acts of terror in Indonesia, especially after the collapse of New Order. Which of the terrorist network play? And how the pattern so that the distribution diasporanya terrorist actors can freely set the agenda bombingnya? Two fundamental questions is what is proposed, because in terms of motives, strategies and types of bombs used have similarities with the act of bombing in Afghanistan. Bali bombing has led to the emergence of such a conspiracy of bombers, in which the Indonesian government immediately arrest Abu Bakar Bashir shortly after the bombing occurred. 
At least there are three reports that can provide clues of the relationship between the characters of Al-Qa'idah with Indonesia. First, the report revealed Sidney Jones himself who, despite his confession was revised in recent times. The report stated in ICG Indonesia Breafing: Al-Qa'idah in Southeast Asia, 2002. In its report, Sidney says that the network of terrorism in Indonesia has started since the 1970s, where political conditions in Indonesia under the New Order regime of political repression against political Islam. In this era, the name of Abu Bakar Bashir is known vocal in criticizing the New Order government was arrested in 1978. Ba'asyir assume that the regime is unfair and violate Islamic law, especially the imposition of Pancasila as the sole basis of the principle of mass organization and orpol. 
Events of his arrest, in fact, give inspiration to the many colleagues, Abdullah Sungkar, Abu Jibril and others. Not long after his release from prison, Bashir and his colleagues moved to Malaysia. In this neighbor country, suspected Sidney motion in contact and possibly sending students-santrinya to Pesawar, Pakistan-Afghanistan border to be trained in the military who was then the center of the Islamic world-genjarnya genjar involved in the expulsion of the Soviet Union-leaning komunias. In this context, the interests of the Islamic world and the West found a similarity, ie termination of the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan. Related to this is the strategic response networks Bashir, Sidney obtaining provisional conclusion that the entrance to dissect the Al-Qaida network in Indonesia, in fact, through the Ngruki and Mujahidin Council.  Recognition of Nasir bin Abbas - a Malaysian nationals - when SCTV interviewed in this exciting listened to, he admitted that the presence in Pakistan for military training dispatched the sponsorship of Abdullah Sungkar who was then in Malaysia. This connection that allows interpretation of a difficult birth incontrovertible if the lack of a close relationship network with Abdullah Sungkar and Bashir al-Qaeda network, although it is difficult to prove.
Second, the analysis presented in Zachary Abuza made in NBR Analysis using funding approaches.  The choice of this approach he said is very possible in addition to the flow of funds, it may be possible presence of an intense relationship between the two organizations are concerned. There are at least two networks are utilized in support of al-Qaeda movement and bombing operations in Southeast Asia, with different modes. Cases in the Philippines, Al-Qaeda supports the operations of Abu Sayyaf and the MILF in the Philippines through the financial institution named IRIC (International Relations and Information Center) was built by Jamal Khalifah. Unlike the case of the Philippines, an Al-Qaeda network used marriage as a pathway transformation to support the movement financially.
As an expert in the study of Al-Qaeda and JI, Zachary Abuza said that the head of the center of Al-Haramain Foundation is a citizen of Saudi Arabia, known as Sheikh Bandar often come to Indonesia because it has a wife in Surabaya. Through this pathway, Sheikh Bandar often sent for a bag containing the money handed over by Ahmed Al-Moudi. In addition to Sheikh Bandar, Abuza Rashid accused as the person responsible as the supplier of funds and ammunition and explosives in the movement of JI. Later the name Rashid, according to Abuza could be suspected as Umar Faruq, one of the most sought after as an actor terrorists in Southeast Asia.
Third, a common vision and mission with the terrorist network al-Qaeda. Although difficult to be investigated more deeply, there are at least two key words that became the mission of Al-Qaeda, which project dehumanisasinya and enforcement of 'global caliphate'. Both of these agendas can not escape the historical background of the founding of this organization as a response to the secular West, after the dead end to get a joint venture with the West by his success in repelling the Soviet Union from Afghanistan soil. In casuistic, the defeat of the Soviet Union in the eyes of the Islamic world is more of the outstanding achievements of Muslims achieved in eliminating the type of occupation, especially komunias wing. Meanwhile, for the U.S. and other Western countries expressed his satisfaction in utilizing the Muslims who are members of two communities, Bait al-Ansar leader Osama bin Laden and Maktab al-solemn (Service Centre) leader Abdullah Azam in the same year, 1984.
Tansiq or alliance of the two organizations which is the capital for the movement of Osama in the conduct of its operations through a new organ called Tandzim al-Jihadi al-Qaeda, although in practice many of the Arab Afghans support the needs of the majority of participants background of Al-Ikhwan Al- who also coordinated the Moslem League of Arab World. The two organizations formed by Abdullah Azam and Osama is in fact a tactical response to short-term needs of a global conspiracy between Osama bin Laden, Prince Turki, General Gull for the alliance to face "the same enemy".  Unfortunately, the political response to the long duration This short does not take into account the impact of religious and political affairs in the future.
First, Islamic organizations, which in essence do the empowerment of its members and enhance their quality of life better manipulated, or manipulated by outside interests. As a result, organizations hardline Islam has dark history, not only reduce the significance of "Jihad" real, but also trapped in the game of global politics, is simply used as a grass that can be shaken by a great power called the West with all its resources it has. And second, the U.S. and the West could not escape from the shackles of the impact of the broken joint venture of the conspiracy that does not benefit all parties. Especially for the leadership of Osama bin Laden organization, Al-Qaeda, in fact the U.S. side hit back and the West. This step seems to be having realized if organizations and their networks are only used merely from a secret alliance of three countries, Pakistan, Britain and the U.S.. Terror events in the U.S. since 1998 to the 2000s in both the WTC bombing and bombing the Pentagon shows Al-Qaeda as an act of the responsible party.  The virus is a possible spread of infidelity to the alumni of the Afghan war, not least the militant Indonesian Muslims who sent to the country. No wonder if the names of terrorists in the Land of water such as Mukhlas, Amrozi, and others have connections and have been given sufficient military skills during his stay in Pakistan. The practice of hatred against the West in fact brought to Indonesia and devise measures that are not berkeprimanusiaan. Bombing-bombing carried out with no accountability. 
However, in its development name of Al-Qaeda has dimmed, especially after the U.S. invaded Afghanistan in 2005. Western media organs publishing these dangerous terrorists as the Taliban. This organization can be a form of metamorphosis from Al-Qaeda, an organization that fought for an extension since the beginning of the Islamic movement. As one contemporary organizational terrorism in the Middle East, the Taliban and the army chased and then destroyed. In the eyes of the West, through the organization is recruiting members and organizing military training conducted. Surprisingly, until recently, the West has not shown its success in capturing Osama bin Laden alive, 'a naive effort', if not to say that Osama bin Laden deliberately planted the U.S. to U.S. regional interests in the region, namely oil and security interests its allies, Israel.
D. JI and Diaspora Religious Extremist
Many of the previously doubted the existence of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah, a radical organization to spread terror. Indeed, in terms of its name, this organization is to be community or set of Muslims. Especially when Indonesia under the leadership of Megawati, through Wapresnya, Hamzah Haz, said that Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah as a radical organization that does not exist. Here is the announcement for the first time officials of this country presented to the public associated with the JI. After a long time, the incidence of terrorist bombings in Bali and of course the statement of Vice President is much doubt many circles. Finally, many public wonder about the real existence of JI and how to network-network in Indonesia?.
The writings are considered sufficient to provide information about the existence of JI in Indonesia was in the era of the early 2000s then many published, such as the ICG report, Zachariya Abuza, Ken Conboy,  ZA Maulani,  Riza Sahbudi, and A. Maftuh. All the text states that the existence of JI is undoubtedly exist in Indonesia. The cells are scattered after the Afghan war against the Soviet Union mendiaspora science and practice of the Afghan war in many countries that have Muslim populations, especially Indonesia. Indonesia is seen as a strategic land, therefore the majority population of Muslims. To enforce Islamic law through a system of caliphate according to them is a solution for continuity of socio-political crisis endless when it. However, in view of ZA Maulani figure al-Farouk is touted as a bridge of Al-Qaeda and JI is questionable. In fact, he pointed lest al-Farouk figure this is as mysterious and dipublikan Western media. These figures he could have then gone and removed. This accusation denied by Ken Conboy, saying that the view which impressed conservative Maulani ZA This can be regarded as a defense for the political stability of Indonesia, and especially psychology of the people of Islam. Conboy here seem to want to argue that JI actually have a secret network, spread over many places in Indonesia, the characters are an Afghan alumni and partly Muslim Indonesia is Indonesia back after some time sought refuge in Malaysia for avoiding politically repressive New Order.
Diaspora ideology of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya (JI) it has become an indisputable reality that is difficult. A variety of expression and behavior of some JI activists not only displays the ideological nature justifies violence but also launched its actions in an effort to realize the ideals of socio-political Al-Khilafah Al-Islamiyyah or also called "global caliphate". They look so put Islam as an ideological alternative to change the order of human civilization which he has failed as a result of Western intervention and any of its products, such as democracy, human rights, and civil society. Inevitably, the various attributes that are addressed to Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya as an organization the more radical wing clandestin reinforce harmful existence of Islam, the Islamic community and the rest of humanity. This is reinforced by a few notes about this JI movement that is international and is ready for alliance with the radical movements that have the same agenda. In Indonesia, JI was established for the first time in the 1970s by Abdullah Sungkar (Alm) as a forum for the struggle of Muslims. However, for various considerations, it have its main office in early JI Jamat Negara Islam Indonesia (NII), which at that time by the officers, Ajengan Masduki. The move is seen as strategic alliances, given the political circumstances in the country experiencing political repression against Muslims.  In addition to its participation faucet is closed, also prohibits a variety of Islamic activities that tended to criticize the government. If it was allowed to go through a very lengthy permitting stage through various agencies.
The entry of Abdullah Sungkar in the body of NII in fact gave birth to at least two factions bersebrangan, hard and rather moderate, as a result of the roles and positions favorable Sungkar. Abdullah Sungkar and colleague, Abdullah Bashir took the line of NII radicals in the body by fighting a war against the government. On the pretext of continuing the struggle Kartosuwiryo noble intentions, these factions have sympathy for most members of the NII. Step political factions are at least influenced by three factors: first, the surge is understood and fought jihad found its strategic location, which is against the government which he deemed to have committed injustice, by pressing the Muslims. Second, in view of Abdullah Sungkar, Islamic Shari'a can not be enforced without the support strength (power). Religious understanding is what indicates that there is no clear boundary between religion and politics. In fact, in terms of power politics is understood as a \ part and parcel with the Islamic movement. in the context of Indonesia, although very risky, theology and political Abdullah Sungkar is what has hypnotized thousands of followers. No wonder, if the religious views like this that became the basis of ideological factions, mostly members of the NII sympathy. And third, to strengthen the fight jihad in the field this tyranny, faction is it important to send not less than 5000 members who have trained military jama'ahnya, either to Afghanistan, Moro, as well as other regional conflicts. Names like Mukhlas, Ali Imron, Imam Samudra and other faithful followers of Abdullah Sungkar and have experience in the arena of the war in Afghanistan, armed terror sciences and skills to assemble bombs. 
In contrast to analysts at the top, using the theory Ngruki sidney Jones and Afghans to confirm his statement about the existence of JI in Indonesia. Ngruki pesantren network shares and according to him has given way for the smooth performance of a radical Islamic leader Abdullah Sungkar and Bashir. Although difficult to prove, Sidney gives the message that the figures as perpetrators of terror can not be separated with a boarding institution. Afghans says longer viable theory proposed, given the Afghan alumni who returned to Indonesia did not even relax and mingle with the community in their area. In fact, these alumni continue waging the mandated agenda of the Afghan war, against communism and the dominance of the secular West. Similarly Ngruki theory, Afghan alumni leaders are also followers of Abdullah Sungkar who since 1980 has been sent to Afghanistan by the hardline faction of the NII.
In line with with the previous opinions, A. Maftuh using documentary analysis approach to explain the existence of JI. He called the eleven documents to support his opinion. The method he used is to analyze what is in the text, or better known as the inner document. In addition, the second method used by outsiders how to read and analyze the documents, situations, conditions, and the actors involved in JI documentation. Eleventh General Guidelines document is a struggle of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah, or better known as yang bertarikhkan PUPJI May 30, 1996, Fikhul Jihad (Islamic law of war), Progress Report Da'wah wa al-Ershad, Wakalah Java Rabiul Awwal Wustho period 1420 / June 1999, the document reports and budget proposals sent by Qoid Training (Commander) Mantiqi III / Wakalah Hudaibiyah to Amir JI A/03/SIII/06/1420 letters with numbers, the draft document Territorial Development System (SISBINTER), documents the results of training evaluation military held by Tajnid 'Am Yarmuk, followed by 13 participants, the report documents the TA Yarmuk Daurah I, document-making techniques and assemble explosives bombs, the document Guidelines to practice Islam according to Qur'an and Sunnah, which is a daily record of documents Omar Al-Farouk, and documents from a data base containing the scholars and community leaders who are in the area wakalah Jawus. 
From the eleventh document, there are two documents that allegedly has the ideological similarities between his PUPJI Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah PMIMADA owned by Abu Bakar Bashir. The similarity is at least in the mission of this organization that is fighting to uphold Daulah Islamiyah (Islamic state) and for those who refuse to fight, according to Bashir, "such a person is a lawful enemy of Islam fought". Although it was revised by Irfan Awwas, this statement alleged the existence of ideological-political similarities Ba'asyir with JI. From the analysis of the documentary that has been done A. Maftuh this at least provides an important record of flying hours JI in Indonesia. At the end of his writings on JI, A. Maftuh provide conclusions, among other things, first, the existence and the existence of an organization called Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya is a reality that is very difficult to be denied. As a movement which has international flight hours (al-Alami), Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya was more senior than the movement "al-Gharah Syann" or spreader terrorist named Al-Qa'idah. Only, JI appears to be more complete documentation of the movement, ranging from al-al-Haraki manhaj up to nidlam rights. As for the historicity of the two organizations, Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya (JI) and Al-Qa'idah is a movement that is the alliance and have the same upstream, which wants a state order system called "al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah", as an ending of the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah is an entirely objective could never be negotiable. Upstream that connects the two organizations, Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya (JI) and Al-Qa'idah is keterpengaruhannya with "the same sources" that the thoughts and radical movements that have sprung up in Egypt and Pakistan, such as the extreme wing al-Ikhwan al-Moslem Jama'ah al-Jihad, Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya of Egypt, the Muslim Jama'ah and Jama'at-e-Islami Pakistan. Hard thoughts began to Al-Mawdudi, Sayyid Qutub and Dr.. Umar Abdur-Rahman about the theory of the sovereignty of God (al-Hakimiyah) can be easily found in the movement patterns of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya who had worked on the main land in Southeast Asia as a base with four Mantiqi wing movements.
Second, as an underground movement, Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya was in addition to already prepare the rules of the game and Nidham PUPJI Rights, has also been prepared in a systematic and planned military movement that has been trained specifically with material ranging from WP (Weapon Training), MR (Map reading), IT (Technical Infantry) and FE (Field Enginering). Even more surprising is the training on bombing technique that starts from the ways and techniques of making up with lab work on the ground. This further strengthens the fact that in order to realize the goal of creating a Daulah Islamiyah JI Khilafah Islamiyah toward using force as a means to be involved. Familiar with the skills and expertise in both light and heavy weapons is in fact a profession that is not familiar to most personal of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya in particular who have been involved directly in the battlefield in Afghanistan.
Third, the central issues of the jargon of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya is the practice of Islam in kaffah and syumul, Daulah Islamiyah and al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah. All these themes can be found easily in PUPJI. Central jargon is actually academically still need to be discussed further in the longer runway, especially concerning epistemology.
Sixth, the emergence of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyya is often seen with the works of "violence" her, is the result of the meeting and struggles of radical and militant Muslims worldwide in the project peruntuhan communist Soviet Union. Frictions have strategic and tactical teramu and tested well in the open laboratory Afghanistan war, which is an orchestra of violence and involves several countries with their own interests.
The phenomenon of Islamic radicalism as an expression of political movements that led some Muslims to the efforts of Islamic ideology is basically not formally separated from the Islamic doctrine of factors, political attitudes and political movement which waged. James P. Piscatori asserted that as a communal system, the expression of the followers of Islam to Islamization presents a variant. Many factors influence the political expression of Muslims when dealing with social and political realities of the developing world. No doubt, the frequent occurrence of the events of terrorism and other violence no doubt have resulted in many casualties, which in turn has led to the identification of the minor that the portrait of fundamentalist and radical Islam became the object of study is more interesting, because as a party defendant in several cases of terrorism, rather than in portrait substansialis Islam.
Bid as well as a solution to efforts to minimize the movement of terrorism by rejecting violence and instead become an important cornerstone epistimelogi undermine them by asking four things into consideration in the eyes of academia, namely: First, international radicalism network called al-Qa'idah and al- Jama'ah al-Islamiyya is the "fruit" of the "shade tree" verbalis scripturalistic understanding of religious texts are forced to legitimize the "action violence" by "calling to spread terror jihad (al-gharah syann) in the name of" God "and above the name "Apostle agenda". These include terrorist networks in Indonesia where the actors are meruapakan Afghan war alumni and networks that have been fostered since the 1970's through the Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah formed by Abdullah Sungkar. This organization mendiaspora to the present and the cells may still grow, because its performance is very confidential. The shooting of Dr.. Azhari, Dulmatin, the death penalty, Mukhalas, Amrozi and others indicate a strong suspicion these cells. Similarly, the incidence teros bombs launched by the group and the cells can not be removed just like that. Recent suicide bombing at the JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton shows that the threat of the existence of phantom network is still visible.
Second, understanding of language and religion literalistik verbalis becomes problematic when faced with social and cultural domains are heterogeneous. Therefore it is time and there should be a line of demarcation which distinguishes Islam and what is Arab, because Islam is not identical with the Arab and while both are components incomparrable. This book explicitly says that the imposition of policies that colored "Arab" should be understood as a loose policy of the color of "Islam".
Third, the understanding of religious literalists-scripturalistic often get stuck in an ideological space which is characterized by subjective, normative and closed. Subjective characteristics such understanding has led to major criticism and menafkan no options other religious interpretation. Meanwhile, the normative characteristics are shown on the pattern of thinking positifstik an sich, that the most correct is the norm and the teachings which he believed.
Fourth, the socio-political region, a literalist understanding of the texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah simplikasi result to that aspect of Islam that leads to fundamentalism. Islam was often a political commodity. Islamic doctrines often becomes a tool for coming to power or vice versa is also a tool to fight the power.