Friday, 9 December 2011
Dissecting the roots of Fundamentalism, Radicalism and Global Terrorism in the Islamic World
Written by BangOne
Islam is peaceful religion, so as muslim we must reject every radicalism idiology that is a root of terrorism. Still fresh in our minds, after long enough about 4-yearly recurring terrorist bombings in this country, Indonesia again surprised by the recurrence of bombing the Marriott and Ritz Carlton hotels. With a target of foreign expatriates, occurs suicide bomb that killed a dozen people and wounding dozens of others including the deaths of the two actors who are still fairly young. The name Dani bi permana 18-year-old and Nana Mulyana 20 years who became the media spotlight even analyze a variety of materials experts and observers. Intelligence experts, psychologists, sociologists, until the scholars provide diverse commentary and analysis and argument in dissecting the root causes of terrorism measures that could be considered very accurate planned this.
In many diverse analizing which then gives conclusions that terrorism will not be stopped because of the latent root causes of massive development of the movement that leads to radicalism and terrorism in Indonesia, until the very rashly accused the former KaBAKIN Hendropriyono radicalism transnational Islamic organizations as understanding the root causes of the spread. By stop terrorism has mean we spread peaceful life, like the vision of islam as peaceful religion.
It is now in fact Radicalism and Terrorism does not just happen in Indonesia but also occurs in the other hemisphere. Radicalism and terrorism is not only done by a small group but also the global network or country. For that in analyzing the development of this ideology, we can use a scalpel to the lifting of the root causes of the stigmasi and perspective into the idealism of the roots of global terrorism. Absolute truth claims is capable of moving the action that is fundamentalism, radicalism and led to acts of terrorism.
Fundamentalism, can make our initial analysis is at the root of understanding the formation, thought to absolute measures. From the standpoint of Orientalist spectacles, Fundamentalism is a movement in a stream, ideology or religion that seeks to return to what is believed to be the foundations or principles (foundations). Usually this is based on a literal interpretation or interpretations contained in all the teachings of the Bible or any other guidebook. Fundamentalism because it happened not only in Islam but also a variety of religious and other beliefs.
The emergence of fundamentalism actually started from the perspective of the Christian heritage. With the strengthening of religious reform ideology of modernity are realized with the birth of Protestantism. Fundamentalism is not just changing the order of theological values but also the movement that is considered to rescue and repair of the values embodied by ideological and social change in this society adherents padamasyarakat Christian culture created western civilization.
Moreover fundamentalism also occurs in various other theological doctrine such as the birth of Nichiren Buddhism movement that occurs in Buddhist teachings, especially in Japan, Hintduva in Hindu religion of India. Religious fundamentalism is more aimed to strengthen the influence of religion-influenced ideology of nationalism, thus forming the fundamental ideology of the state with religion.
In another view to pursing the Islamic fundamentalism, is one interpretation of socio-religious tradition (sect) that make Islam as a religion and ideology, so that was developed in which not only theological doctrine, but also ideological doctrines. Doctrines were developed by the founding figures of modern fundamentalism, which include Hasan al-Banna, Abu A'la al-Mawdudi, Sayyid Qutb, Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, Abd as-Salam Faraq, Sa'id al-Hawa and juhayman -Uteybi.
So basically fundamentalism is a movement of Islamic renewal Tajdid to make not only the teachings of fiqh juz'iyah on procedures ubudiyah: purification, prayer, alms, pilgrimage and worship other mahdhah, but also demands the implementation of a comprehensive frame syamilah life-we were so demanding the application of Islam in order of social norms, the State governance and human life in totality.
As the minutes of Hasan al-Banna in ArRasailnya, "We understand Islam as an integral, including the dimensions of the life world and the hereafter. This is not a claim that we made-up. But that's exactly what we understand from the Book of Allah and the results of our flashback to earlier generations of Islam.Our Da'wah Islamiyah indeed, with all the meanings contained in the word. Understand what you want to understand from the word with the remains guided by the Book of Allah (the basic source of Islam), Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (explanation of the book), and the righteous ones sirah (life path righteous predecessors, as an applicative example of God's command and teachings of Islam)
Islam is a comprehensive system, which touches all aspects of life. He is a country and homeland, the government and people, character and strength, compassion and justice, civilization and law, science and justice, material and natural wealth, income and wealth, jihad and da'wah, forces and ideas, as well as he was faith that is straight and true worship, no less and no more. ".
If in the previous period, the values of fundamentalism still form the ideas presented moderate Islamic thinkers such as Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Ridhah, or Jalaludin al-Afghani. But with the transformative pattern AlBanna Hasan has advantages with step further than its predecessor, with Islam in order to transform the operational harakah Islamiyah. Although in such a short time period of his life (murder occurred at the age of 47 years), but the transformation of Islam kepawaiannya able to move vast majority of his day when the Islamic world was under European colonial rule. Not only in Arabic, Hasan AlBanna also provide a lot of political support in the struggle for Indonesian independence, which is evidenced by his efforts to support the independence fighters figures like KH. Agus Salim and Syahrir Indonesia's independence in conducting testimony to gain support and recognition from Arab countries which also include newly gained independence.
Although a brief period of his life in the piece of history, but Hasan al-Banna was able to show great struggles in raising awareness of those Muslims in Arab Peninsula. He was able to unify the fundamental theological, ideological and operational amaliyah Islam that builds awareness of the people to rise up from kejumudannya. He was able to mobilize tens of thousands of Islamic fighters from various countries of the Arabian Peninsula to fight the British occupation in Palestine and Israel. Besides Islamic movement the Muslim Brotherhood drove by horizon childbearing Islamic reform, organizational, academic, and social impacts of large changes in Arab world. Struggle so that the ink is able to provide large changes in the mainframe world beliefs and thoughts on Islam and became a fundamental roots as inspiration for the birth of various global Islamic movement.
During its development, the movement of Islamic fundamentalism is now able to grow significantly in the land-Muslim majority country. By navigating to the reconciliation efforts of the global realization of Pan Islamism to unite Muslims in the framework of the potential reconstruction of the rise of Islam. So the analysts of world civilization will be able to judge Muslims rose to become the world's great civilizations when Islam is able to realize the unity of power that can compete with a variety of great civilizations that have been established at this time: America, Europe, China and Japan.
This is because the ability of Islamic movement that is able to touch the reconstruction of the power of civilization. Which combines Islamic beliefs and thoughts synergized with the strength of materials, human resources, as well as the influence of Social and Education. In the map of mobility at this time, the consortium movement of Islamic fundamentalism the main shaft that was driven Al-Ikhwan in the Arabian peninsula, Gulen (Turkey & Europe), Jamaat el-Islami (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India), ABIM in Malaysia, or Tarbiyah in Indonesia and various derivatives that are currently not less than 70 countries globally's been able to demonstrate the power of renewal of a dynamic, progressive and sustainable.
Therefore, in this view, Islamic fundamentalism does not lead to radical changes in the absurd, but is more focused on efforts to realize the global Islamic resurgence in terms of reconciling the Islamic world to return to the values of Islamic rights. It also demonstrated the ability of Islamic movements in establishing communication between the international Islamic community organizations to play an active role and powering the Natural Rabitha Islamiyah Islamic institutions, the World Association of Scholars, the International Muslim Youth WAMY (World Assembly of Moslem Youth), the Council of Arab Muslims, the Muslim Council of Europe, the Council American Muslims ISNA (Islamic Society of North America), and various containers unifying Muslims around the world. From here we also recognize the great scholars and charismatic as: DR. Said Ramadan Al-Buthi, DR. Muhammad Al-Ghazali, Prof. DR. Yusuf Al-Qardhawy, DR. Abul Hasan Ali An-Nadwi, Prof.. DR. Abdul Karim Zaidan, Prof. DR. Majid Abdul Aziz Az-Zindani, Prof. Harun Yahya and other scholars who are recognized throughout the Islamic world will kefaqihan and enlightenment heritage of Islam.
But besides its influence to build awareness of the people, the spirit of transformation values also gave birth to Islamic radicalism fundamentally caused by the pressure from various internal and external factors against Muslims. In a review of the sociologist, Radicalism etymologically derived from the vocabulary of the Latin radix meaning root. Thus, in terms of radicalism is closer to the sense of confidence to take the main road in the dominant resistance to various stresses and domination, whether ideological, political, economic, social and street battles.
We know the various revolutionary movements and characters either extreme right or left. Mao Zedong, Karl Marx, Guevara, Stallin, Lennin, JJ. Rousseau, James Fox is among the popular figures who pioneered the world outside the realm of ideological radicalism of Islam. Against the backdrop of Han Dynasty collapsed and corrupt, Mao pioneered the popular revolution china socialist communist country until the founding of the PRC. Karl Marx, and Lennin Stallin is a pioneer in the European communist socialist revolution, Che Guevara and Fidel Castro Mr. communism in Latin America, JJ. Rousseau that move the Renaissance in France or James Fox who spearheaded the workers' revolution in England.
Ideological radicalism also become the dominant Islamic movement as a driving radicalization. Sayyid Qutb, Ali Shariati, Ruhollah Khomeini, Taqiyudin AnNabani are amongst the popular Islamic leaders are taking a big role in rolling discourse radicalism Islamic da'wah to break the deadlock. Effect of environmental conditions and socio-geopolitical instability, authoritarian regimes, and conditions that are full of violence and intimidation more into the background due to radicalism which does not allow for gradual reform and fundamental Islam.
In periods of detention are filled with long ordeal to face the gallows, Sayyid Qutb gave birth to the works of phenomenal FII dzilalil Koran and books of pamungkasnya Ma'alim Tariq fit. She gave birth to his thinking with a background full conditions of the overall pressure on the Islamic movement the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, where he ruled. Islamic movement of his day is full of intimidation, the closure of all branches and charity efforts in Egypt and various other Arab countries as a result of ideological disagreement with the strengthening of Arab socialism in Egypt, Iraq, Syrians and other Arab republics, until the murder of the main characters as well as the arrest thousands of activists were by dictatorial socialist regime of Gamal Abdul Nasser in power. Because even then the tendency of radicalism rationale for action against the ideological dictatorship is more prominent in the works last compared with fundamentalism tarbiyah in previous works.
In the perspective of the movement of Islam, Sayyid Qutb was asked as Martyr Ideological inspiring ideological struggle of Islam against Western ideological liberalism and socialism. The character he developed the basic ideology is to form a Qur'anic society based entirely on the doctrine of the Koran, and create a society which fully bound by the law of God. He believes this to be fully part of the Islamic Aqeedah Hakimiyah. In addition he has a mission orientation should be the ideological struggle between the Truth (Islam) against the falsehood (secular).
Radicalization of Islamic ideology and pergesekannya with other ideologies still continues to this day in the Islamic world. This is especially so in countries that are geopolitical, social, economic and less stable. In the Arab region in Iraq, Syrians, Jordanians, Lebanese friction ideological socialist, liberal and Islam is still very strong that it causes violent acts. Similarly, in the area of northern Africa (Egypt, Sudan, Yemen), West Africa (Algeria, Tunisia), to Asia Minor and the middle (Turkey, Kurdistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgistan) and the other hemisphere.
Another major figure who also can be classified as having an ideology is Taqiyudin An-Nabani. He took the road of political ideological radicalism able to make changes with the goal of political Islam. By establishing Hizb ut-Tahrir as a revolutionary Islamic political movement that has a primary purpose the establishment of Khilafah Islamiyah, an Islamic movement patterns adopted is to do a revolution of thought and focus to make the struggle of thought with criticism, debate and attacking ideas not in accordance with Islamic thought the adoption.
Hizb ut-Tahrir radical propaganda cover only political activity and thinking and distancing themselves from the activities of Islamic amaliyah. It is considered to be only a hindrance and slow down the path to Islamic revival. With the argument absence of the Khilafah Islamiyah daulah, the doctrine of Hizb ut-Tahrir adopts the strategy used in future mission is to be the Mecca period, so the social rituals that became Muslims communal obligations such as Government, Economics of Islam, Baitul Maal, Educational Institutions, Organizing Jihad and other is not required and should be avoided because of the duty daulah Islamiyah later if it is formed.
Although already in the saturation and less developed in Arabia, but the pattern of radicalization of thought HT was actually able to grow significantly in the environment of the country a stable but menyisahkan marginalized communities. Marginalized groups is affected and who will be able to move into an ideological opposition groups, by attacking various government policies that have created ketidakmakmuran, injustice, and marginalization of groups of people. Hizb ut-Tahrir able to develop significantly in democratic countries like Europe with the segmentation of immigrant workers and educated society, the countries of Central Asia Minor and is still looking after the fall Unisovyet ideological, as well as the people of the Islamic-majority Indonesia became marginalized groups.
Besides the two figures above ideological Sunni, Shiite groups also present from the revolutionary thinkers of which the most popular and became the foundation was Mullah Ali Shariati and Ruhollah Khomeini. Both figures are much inspired by the thought of socialism to be able to roll-Islamic Iranian revolution that toppled the regime of dictator Reza Pahlavi. Khomeini was ordained to be the father of the Iranian nation Wali Allah and his brother Ali Khamenei as the supreme authority in Iran today is a country with a religion based on Shia bermadzabkan Ja'fari.
In addition in the form of ideological and political thinking, radicalism radicalism is also the background for the global jihad movement. Long legacy of war conditions the early to mid-century colonialism 16-20 almost swept across the Islamic world, the burden of a long history of wars of the Crusades Islam and Christianity, as well as the continued development of the ideological radicalism of thought because of friction, as well as the Arab regimes dictatorship gives a strong impetus to the formation of more radicalism in the form of military hardware.
However there are some background, segments and models of military or jihadist radicalism. Movement in the Islamic world jihad organization continues to grow and become a global jihad movement. At first the Islamic movement that developed progressively amaliyah jihad for Muslims begins generating power from the birth of the jihad movement Tandzimul Jihad. This organization is an organization initially prepared by the paramilitary wing of Al-Muslim Brotherhood movement around the 40's in Egypt to take the fight over British rule in Palestine and Israel. With the character of the famous Sheikh Izzudin whose name is enshrined into the name of the organization's military wing of Hamas movement in Palestine Brigade Izzudin AlQassam.
Jihad organization strong and solid is able to show the strength of a congregation in organizing and mobilizing Islamic jihad in the long war against the occupation in Palestine, which until now conflicts and wars there remains a magnet geopolitical world. The ability of these jihadist organizations also exist with the ability to organize the jihad movement in conducting the defense of Muslims dipelbagai conflicts and wars that occurred because of colonization and genocide that occurred over the people of Islam, which include the movement of Palestinian Mujahideen, Afghanistan, Bosnia, Chechnya, and Iraq. Among his characters are popular DR. Abdullah Azzam, Khattab Syit Mahmud, Sheikh Ahmad Yassin, DR. Abdul Aziz al-Rantisi, the Bosnian president Alija Izzetbegovic, or the Afghan Mujahideen leaders affiliated AlIttihad Islamiyah Islamic movement Shaykh. DR. As the Apostle Abdur-Sayaf and Hizbul Islam led by Ir. Gulbudin Hikmatiyar.
In addition to this movement, there is a more massive pengorganisasi jihad and radical movement that began with the birth of Islam Al-Jama'ah Islamiyah who was also born in Egypt. At first most of the founders of the Jamat Jihad is Jihad Tandzimul among members who are dissatisfied with the attitude that Al-Ikhwan as moderate and tolerant in silence and do not take up arms, and prefer to make changes in reformative, even though they get intimidated and violence in the Arab ruling regimes, especially Egypt lasted even until now.
Among the founders of Al-Jama'ah Islamiyah is DR. Fadhil Abdul Aziz, Ishamudin Darbalah, DR. Najih Ibrahim, and now the most famous DR. Ayman Azzawahri. Unlike the organizational Tandzimul Jihad which is only a wing organization. Al-Jemaah Islamiyah Indeed, the organization makes the path of jihad as the main Wasilah build strength congregations become fully pilgrims jihad. So that the pilgrims were developed in strict confidence and not use the Islamic da'wah approach is widely and openly. They do the hiring and training only to Islamic activist who was a fikrah is completely ready to be sent to the battlefield. And they declared open war against the ruling regimes in the Arab with ideological arguments or oppression committed against them.
Although now at the center of the Egyptian Al-Islamiyah pilgrims declare the dissolution of self-propagation and back streets, but the Islamic movement has previously been able to develop themselves significantly in volatile countries such as Afghanistan, the Caucasus, Al-Algiers, Yemen, Iraq, Syrians and Lebanese. Islamic Jihad movement that is detached from its parent this is what gave birth to the organization's strengths far more massive and radical Islamic movement with the birth of Al-Qaeda Islamiyah. The leader of this movement is very popular right now that is Osamah bin Laden with his spiritual leader is the DR. Ayman Azzawahri.
But before the discussion of organizational activities related to terrorism, the need to advance the definition of who can represent the meaning of terrorism. Terrorism is closer to the activities of armed attacks coordinated with the aim to a feeling of terror, fear to war unilaterally against a group of people. Contrary to widespread war, acts of terrorism are not subject to the procedures of warfare such as execution time is always a sudden and random targets and victims are often civilians.
The term counter-terrorist experts said referring to the perpetrators that are not incorporated in the armed forces are known or does not follow the rules of the armed forces and not look at the universal rules of warfare. Acts of terrorism also implies that the attacks carried out inhumane and has no justification.
Due to the negative meanings contained by the words "terrorist" and "terrorism", the terrorists generally refer to themselves as separatist, freedom fighters, Crusaders, militant, militants, and others. But the justification in the eyes of terrorism: "The real meaning of jihad, mujahideen is far from acts of terrorism that attacked civilians when not engaged in war". Though terrorism itself often appears with the name of religion. Even American soldiers need to be baptized and dubbed a Knight of Templare Crussade waging the war against terrorism that they view Islam.
In addition to the individual perpetrators, terrorism can be done by the state, known as state terrorism (state crime there). For example, as suggested by Noam Chomsky who call the United States into that category. The issue of double standards has always colored the various mentions that initially originated from the West. Such as the United States many calls to various terrorist groups in the world, on the other hand media coverage pointed to the fact that the United States doing horrible acts of terrorism to violate the conventions that have been agreed.
In the world of Islamic Movement of pilgrims next jihad terror and close to the stocking of one view can be said to Al-Qaeda is the Taliban. Both of these pilgrims are very extreme in realizing the mission of Islamic governance and the rule of Islamic Shari'a. So often the two movements will easily take up arms and declare war against governments that do not implement Islam completely in their views. This is evidenced by the invasion of the Taliban who took up arms against the Afghan Mujahideen government led Prof. Burhanuddin Rabbani, just after the victory of the Mujahideen forces against Unisovyet Najibullah regime and the communist government in the early 90's. Even the Taliban to establish Islamic state reasons fully in Afghanistan, then fight all Mujahideen factions who previously led the jihad wars in Afghanistan and already diditerima entirely by Afghan society.
Neither the recent events in Pakistan, when the SWAT valley community and the Pakistani Taliban are given the flexibility to implement Islamic Sharia in SWAT valley, they were gradual rather than run with the Shari'a of Islam but instead doing violence to their own judgments on people who used to be at odds with their group, among the judges as well as civilian and military officials in the area that later many of those arrested and executed by the Taliban. After that they are open to invasion and infiltration into other areas and declared war against the Pakistani government. So until now occurred a massive war between the Government of Pakistan and the Taliban in the provinces bordering Afghanistan.
Both of these jihadi organizations that currently can be regarded as roots of violence and terrorism in the Islamic world. Ideological jihad which is believed by both organizations is not only defensive but also offensive to the entire world without exception to the lands of Islam. So opposition and war which they believe is not only against terrorism America and the West against the Islamic world, but also by preparing a comprehensive war to realize the Daulah Islamiyah in their views through street warfare. No exception street warfare against all regimes in Islamic countries as well as they consider infidel country must also be fought within the framework to create daulah Islamiyah and the enforcement of sharia in their view. And they easily make takfir on governments or groups that do not fit their worldview.
Among the groups affiliated with this organization including the organization of Al-Qaeda Islamic Emirate of Iraq led by Abu Omar al-Baghdadi. This group, although without a clear territory but had to declare the establishment of daulah Islamiyah in Iraq in their version. They are equally crazy as vying with each other Shiite militias retaliated by Al-Badr Brigade, with no cease doing assassinations and terror bombings almost every day in Iraq, even in places of worship and civic facilities, which has killed thousands casualties of innocent civilians and military. Besides fighting against the American occupation, they also openly declared war against the Iraqi regime and Islamic organizations also opposite to them, like this time they also opened the front Jaisy war with Islam or Hamas Mujahedeen of Iraq. And other groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda in the movement of which is Al-Islamiya Al-Shabab in Somalia, Fatah Islam in the Syrians and Lebanese, and also recently Nasrullah Al-Jundu to declare themselves and declare the Palestinian uprising in Gaza.
While the terrorist organization in Indonesia with this model does not do a massive movement. Although various bomb attacks said to be terrorism, but with a long range attack even up to this annual get closer to the actions of vandalism because factually the people of Indonesia are widely exposed to conditions not feel terror or fear, as well as geopolitical and social influence is not felt. This shows that this organization has no root in Indonesia but only a splinter separatist activities and has weak support. But there are Tandzim and Mabda organization that states the Jihad organization in Indonesia has strong links with Al-Qaeda movement, even those openly publish their support, it can be demonstrated with the site and Muhajirun.net ArRahmah.com.
Organizations that can represent this group in Indonesia is the Indonesian Mujahidin Council, the chairman of S. Ervan Tanfidznya Awwas and chairman of the board syurahnya Ust. Abu Jibril Abdurrahman formerly the Ust. Abu Bakar Bashir. Basically this organization is the formation of two groups of extreme right-NII or NII commonly called Ajengan and factions of Al-Jama'ah Islamiyah Indonesia. But now faction of Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah led Ust. Abu Bakar Bashir split with forming their own congregation Ansharut Tauhid. Although the congregation split in two but in outline the organization's point of view is basically the same. Even the outbreak of the joint venture faction faction NII and JI in the MMI is only due to unilateral pandangan ust.ABB who do not agree with the pattern of organizational leadership elections that are considered to be the same as democracy branded as kufr ideology.
Although both organizations involved stating evasive on terrorism bombings in Indonesia, but nearly all the perpetrators were members of a religious teacher even exist in both the core group. In fact we can see after these acts of terrorism, both the congregation and the leadership of this organization will provide full support and said the bombers as Islamic fighters and martyrdom in the fight against terrorism to Islam and America.
If both of these organizations still exist and with a fixed viewpoint, then terrorism will continue, a matter of time. Because of the activists in both these organizations are prepared for it, and believe in the ideology and struggles they do. Especially in their community have gotten communally justification that what they are doing is correct, and will get the glory of martyrdom Karamah.
So little thought to dissect the root causes of terrorism from the viewpoint of the author. It's great ideals with a renewed rise of Islam through the values of Islamic fundamentalism has given birth is certain residual values of radicalism, as well as the cultivation of the values of radicalism by itself will also trigger the birth of acts of terrorism. The change does require sacrifice, and any changes will inevitably produce a good or bad effects that a separate risk for those changes. That is what is called sunnatullah, whom he planted plane. Such a farmer would grow rice will also grow grass, if you do not want no risk and temptation what farmers have to sell the land. 'd Better go ahead and do change ...! BangOne.