Islam Is Peaceful Religion-In emigrate to a country, preaching is a motivation for hadharim (ethnic Hadhramaut). Countries that they go to East Africa, among others, Zanjibar, Ivory Coast, Madaghaskar, and Asia ranging from India to Indonesia.Not all who emigrated aims hadharim scavenge fortune. But among the groups 'muhajirin' it also has a proselytizing mission. Adherents of tasawwuf many reforms in the social field and is very influential in changing social patterns in tempatinya new country. So that indigenous people are happy to embrace Islam and absorb the teachings of Islam,because islam is peaceful religion.
They pioneered a kulturisasi indigenous civilization and culture with Islamic civilization. But while established that the teachings of Islam. It argues, Islam is always relevant in every aspect of life, in manapuan and whenever. Hadharim have a special place in the eyes of the natives. Many of the natives who later marry his daughters with hadharim. Some are appointed as community leaders.
Hadharim has proven its participation in the amazing of Islam. They are also able to provide answers and challenges. It can be seen when Andalus as a center of Islamic civilization is experiencing defeat, hadharim able to spread Islam in some parts of the world in a relatively short period.
This fact was etched in history. The first time the European nations (Britain, Spain and Portugal) sent troops crusade and imperialism expanded to all corners of the Islamic world, and areas difficult to reach the Ottoman rule (Ottoman), hadharim shoulder to shoulder with the natives to the resistance struggle against imperialism the west. Although the facility is. Help on native not only in economic and cultural sectors, but also in the field of military politics and tactics of war.
Adherents of tasawwuf who shy away from politics in Hadramaut, which is the result of inter-tribal bloodshed endless, engaging in domestic politics singgahannya. Simultaneously, the spread of Islam as well.
In the history of Africa, Hadharim participate in the struggle against European colonizers. Previously there has been good in the field of trade relations between Yemen and Africa since pre-Islamic. Then this relationship improved after the advent of Islam. Even a Hadrami had become Amir (leader) in most local governments along the coast of East Africa, from Somalia to Mozambique. This was before the arrival of Western imperialists to Africa. Similarly, their involvement in the war against the colonial Potugal.
In pemerintaha Omman, they also have a concrete impact. Hadharim have a major impact in Madagascar. Bani Alawy successfully in leading reins of government in Juzurul Qomar (Comoro).
Chronology entry of Islam into India and Southeast Asia
The majority of historians confirm the opinion, the introduction of Islam to India and Southeast Asia have been commenced in the first period of AH. Only, the spread of Islam can not be directly as menggebyah uyah to various regions within a single time, however Islam entered in different places and in the not concurrent.
Precisely at the period of the sixth Hijri, Islam spread to areas continuously until the span of the eleventh through immigrants from Hadhramaut.
Yemen is also known to have good trade relations with India and Southeast Asia since pre-Islamic. That relationship continues to grow until the presence of Islam. This relationship is not limited to the areas of trade, but also covers other areas of life. While historians almost agree about the arrival of Islam to India and Southeast Asia through intermediaries Hadharim. In addition to the well through an Indian, Persian, or Indonesia.
Hadharim known for its praiseworthy qualities that lead to local residents interested and sympathetic. Positive influence is felt it also spread to the field of regional politics. They did not come to fight and colonize. In fact, the natives consider them as a symbol of the nation that is able to unearth indigenous welfare and desire in the area.
The factors that motivate them to engage in political activities among other indigenous to spread Islam, the struggle against the invaders, and other motivations.
The spread of Islam and Walisongo
As already mentioned, not all hadharim which migrated only to seek fortune. But a lot of the propagators and scholars who also emigrated to spread Islam. They migrated to India, and welcomed by the Muslim kings of India. This was done because they require the presence of scholars who can be role models in order to sustain pemerintahanya in the face of people who are Hindu. Also to spread Islam in some areas, especially in the group Mabila.
The preacher has an important position in the eyes of the Muslim kings of India. Among other things, al-'Alamah as-Sufi al-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Umar Bahroq (M W 1524). He was greeted by King sultan Mahmud bin Mudhaffar Bahbikroh, which was then domiciled in Gujarat within a period of time. He has a respectable position in the kingdom and society, as a toehold in the face of the influence of the Hindus and the Brahmins. Therefore, the enemies think hard to eliminate and make deceit a way to poison until he died.
Similarly, as-Sayyid Abdullah al-Idrus (M W 1632) who lived during Bayjayyur kingdom. His influence is very strong, especially in private Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah. Automatically, the flow of Shiite origin royal policy, turned into a Sunni. In addition, the official dress greatness Arab empire gave way to the model, as the Persian model change clothes.
Families who have the most impact in India and Southeast Asia are a family of Abdul Malik ibn Alawi (Ammul fagih) ibn Muhammad (shahib Mirbath). They came from Hadhramaut to India by the end of the 6th century AH. Descendants of Abdul Malik has had good relations with the kingdom of India, the authorities and the clergy there. No wonder that this family can be spread in all over India. It had a large family of significance for the Muslim community of India. The family also got the nickname Abdul Malik Ali Khan Adzamat.
One grandson of Abdul Malik is one of the famous Wali Songo in Southeast Asia. Namely Ahmad bin Abdullah bin Abdul Malik. He has a great influence on Indian empire. Evidenced by his position as one of the ministers in India in a long time. It takes place before the political turmoil in India that led to his sons fled to China, Siam (Thailand) and Cambodia.
In Cambodia, Jamaludin al-Husayn ibn Ahmad married with one daughter of the King of Cambodia who had converted to Islam with his father. From his marriage were born Ibrahim al-Ghazi. It was he who became well scientist warlords to extend its remit to China, Malasyia, and Sumatra. He then married with one daughter of the King of China, and has a son named Rahmatullah and Ishaq. Ishaq is what is known in Java as Maulana Ishaq (Sunan Giri's father) having a higher rank in the reign of King Minak Jinggo, one king Banyuwangi in East Java.
Maulana Ishaq married one daughter of King Minak Jinggo who converted to Islam and succeeded in curing cancer the princess. From this marriage was born a son, named Ainul Yaqin, a preacher who is not familiar. It is also known as a fighter and has a great influence in spreading Islam in Southeast Asia.
While Rahmatullah or Raden Rahmat more popular as the Sunan Ampel have good relations with the government Hindu kingdom of Majapahit. A highly influential kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Raden Rahmat has a relationship with one of the king's sons, namely Prince Joyo Waseso who converted to Islam at the hands of Raden Rahmat and changed the name of Abdul Fatah (Raden Fatah). He fought against his own father and succeeded his father beat him and seized power in the year 792 AH. He then pioneered the establishment of first Islamic kingdom in Java was first known to the Kingdom of Demak. From here the religion of Islam began to spread on a large scale.
Raden Rahmat had many sons, among others:
1. Ja'far Sadiq. He was one of Raden Fatah commander sent directly to demolish Majapahit.2. Ibrahim. He was one of Raden Fatah commander who received the mandate to wage war and accompany Raden Fatah.3. Zainal Abidin. He was prime minister of the 2nd Raden Fatah. In government, he was known firm in the pagans. Khayr al-Din Ali, one historian says, Maulana Zainal Abidin collect statues in Java which has worshiped the statue until it reaches 650, then dumped in the ocean and sea Bawean Madura. He also conquered the heathen under their authority. The heathens are faced with two options, to Islam, or pay the jizya (tax). Some have converted to Islam and partly to pay tribute to the security consequences of the government.
Kings are also descendants of the Bani Alawi Aceh. One of the kings of the most influential in the spread of Islam is King Malik Kamil who died in 607 AH Then al-Malik as-Salih, who died in the year 696 H. Then his son, Muhammad az-Dhahir sultan who died in 726 AH Continued by his son Ahmad, who died in the year 809 H. From this Ahmad nasab (genealogy) of the kings of Brunei and Jaremen Ancient, Baruwak, Salwa, Saibu, Mindanao, and Kanawa.
In Filipinos, Sharif Khabogsan (Sharif Muhammad ibn Ali Zainal Abidin) influential in the spread of Islam. He established an Islamic government there. Zainal Abidin Ali Kabogsan father emigrated from Hadhramaut to Johor and married the daughter of Raja Iskandar Shah, the King of Johor who later had three sons. The youngest son of Muhammad Ali benama known as the Kaboghsan who emigrated to preaching, to the regions in Mindanao Filipinos. Then start Spreading Islam as well as pioneering Islamic state there, the following resistance to western colonialism in a long time.
In Salwa, Sharif Abu Bakr Zainal Abidin who got there in 853 H do changes of government after his marriage to the only daughter of King Solo. He then spread Islam in the country. The replacement can extend the region of his reign and take the fight with Western colonialism at the time.
1. Hadharim had a major influence in the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia. This diaktensi in a seminar organized in Medan North Sumatra, 17 to 20 March 1963. This seminar with the theme of the entry of Islam to Indonesia, which was attended by experts of history, scholars and cultural experts Indonesia. They give resultasi that Islam entered Indonesia was the first time brought by the Bani Alawi of the bermazhab Syafii Hadhramaut.2. The spread of Islam in Indonesia is carried out by various methods. Among da'wah to society directly, through politics, and others.3. Politics aims to back up the propaganda and protect all the activities of preaching and preachers of the chaos and injustice. Can extend up to field preaching. Because, people are usually always follow the religion of his king.4. Those who usually get political or military position to mediate the scholars and propagators who do da'wah to the ruling elite with wisdom and virtue. They have a noble nature which makes the magistrates put great trust.
5. Resistance Against the European Colonial
Because of the wars between the Muslims and the Europeans are too long, as was the case in the islands Ibriya and Eastern Europe, the Portuguese and Spanish began to discharge its efforts to quickly conquer the Muslims. Including control of resources and potential wealth of nature in warfare.
Physical resistance, economics, or religion begins by destroying the Muslim trade routes between west and east. Also by mastering the roads connecting the world's wealth and resources in the eastern part. According to them, that's the way to defeat Islam and its adherents.
But when the Portuguese reached the area east, it turns out the Arabs had got there first. Moreover, many emerging Islamic kingdoms. This makes people angry and upset Portuguese who want to master their project areas east of wealth.
They then tried to eliminate the influence of Arabs and Muslims from the area. Portuguese General De Elbokareik, in a speech in front of the soldiers said, "only to alienate the Muslims from the spice trade, the Portuguese could weaken the power of Islam. And to carry out the solemn to the Lord, we must drive the Mur (Arabic) and put the fire of religious Mohammad. If successful, surely it will not spread fire forever ".
Begin Hadharim shoulder to shoulder with fellow Muslims with high determination to struggle against the rapacious colonialism on Indonesia's wealth. Hadharim started dabbling in the battle against the Portuguese and their allies, the Hindu king. Among the heroes who very bersaja is Hidayatullah bin Abdullah bin Ali (Din) of the family of Abdul Malik al-Alawi had previously managed to expel the Portuguese from the ground kelahiranya, Cambodia. After that he settled in the Islamic kingdom of Demak. In 1526 Sultan Sultan bin Abdul Fattah Trenggono Demak chose as commander Hidayatullah combat troops prepared to attack Pajajaran Hindu kingdom in West Java. This kingdom has agreed on cooperation with the Portuguese government against Islam.
Hidayatullah led forces won the battle. City of Palm Sunda can be mastered and was renamed Jaya Karta. Currently Jaya Karta became the State Capital of Indonesia with the name of Jakarta. Then the Portuguese troops led by General Henrik Reem came, resulting in heavy fighting between troops and Portuguese Hidayatullah. In glorious, the battle was won Hidayatullah troops. He then dubbed Fatahillah. Moderate people call Faletehan Portugal.
Hidayatulah struggle against the Portuguese and the idol worshipers this continues until the year 959 H or 1525 AD He resigned from the government to preach. He then gave the reins of government of Banten kingdom to his son to continue the struggle against the Portuguese. Also the Netherlands in 1833. Until finally, the kingdom of Banten succumbed to the Dutch government in Surabaya.
On the Filipinos, the struggle against colonial Spain is also a large family headed by Sharif Abu Bakr bin Zainal Abidin. The battle lasted for three centuries.
In Palembang, the struggle against the Dutch colonialists made the famous Sultan Badruddin religious and valiant in defense of Islam. But after the fall of the capital of Palembang into the hands of Dutch colonists exiled Sultan Badruddin and his prime minister, Omar Abdullah ibn as-Segaf, to the island of Ternate in 1821 AD
Including Hadharim who do struggle when the initial arrival of the Dutch colonists was Amir al-Wahab bin Sulaiman Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn 'Umar ibn al-Alawi Basyaiban. His grandfather, Abdurrahman, came from Hadhramaut Qasam to Cirebon and married the daughter of King Cirebon. From his marriage, he had two sons, Abdurrahim and Solomon. One of Hasan's son Solomon is known as the Great Prince Sulaiman bin renowned as fighters against the occupation of the Netherlands.
Abdurrahman ibn Husayn al-Qadri al-Alawi is another name that helped plunge the Navy fought against the Dutch and English. He managed to establish the kingdom of Pontianak. Thanks to his perseverance, the Dutch East Indies unions recognize him as King of Pontianak.
In India, the struggle against European colonizers is also done by the group Mabela with high courage. Sultan Ghalib bin Awadh al-Quaiti said, "Do you remember the reproach Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English. Government they are very distressed by this group of fierce resistance. "
Movement of these militant groups supported by some scholars known by the title sayyid meaning Embankment. What is meant is the sayyid descent Bani Alawi of Hadhramaut. Regarding courage Mabela groups, as mentioned source of the Netherlands and France at the time, "they were once in the group who dared to defend Islam. They never give up altogether and more willing to die in the struggle to defend his country. "Moreover, their tactics in the war and keorganisasiannya similar to the Tribe Moro Filipinos.
Ethnic Arab Hadramout growing development in India in the days after that as a soldier in a variety of smaller states in al-Marotsa who have embraced Islam for more than 40 years. This soldier who fought against the British occupation in India, amounting to 6000 soldiers.
Hadharim there are not only extra troops to India, but in control and in part become warlords. This can be known from the story of the British colonel in his memory when fighting against Hadharim in the wars being fought between armies of al-Marotsa and British soldiers, the elite British soldiers are reluctant to put troops Basyafa 'and kings. That's because many soldiers Hadharim there. Moreover Arabs are famous for his ability to survive and beat back the enemy. One thing that is recognized by British soldiers.
Reinald Borton said, "there is no army in the world is as daring and sesolid Arab armies. Although they do not have much ability in battle tactics, but in every soul there is high confidence that they will not be lost while they are still alive. "
British troops fought against the army of al-Marotsa for three times. And it forced them to reap huge losses. First in the year 1775-1782. Second in the year 1802-1805. In this year the British army can defeat al-Marotsa army under the command of Sandiya and Baransala.
However Basyayfa 'Raji Swamp second uniting all forces of al-Marotsa tried to fight back and want to restore the country's independence. He began to fire a third war. But sooner or later the British army could defeat them and are able to master Basyayfa army in 1818. It is characterized by submission Basyaifa commander.
In subsequent years the leadership vacuum (vacuum of power) in the command center of al-Marotsa forces resulting forces are compartmentalized box. Hadharim many who fled to Heydar Abad. Some are forced back by the government to Hadhramaut English teacher. One of the community leaders who joined in the Heydar Abad was Umar bin Awadh al-Quaiti.
1. Hadharim able to achieve a high position, both in the military or government. Evidently, one of them there is a warlord or king postscript capable of resistance against European colonialism.
2. The existence hadharim in politics, military, or social controls could complicate colonialism in Islam and its followers. Moreover, the colonialists were successful holding of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms to cooperate. The majority of Arabs, as community leaders, the nature of the struggle waged on the natives.
3. Hadharim struggle against Dutch colonialism or the British made a distinct fear for them in Arabic and Hadharim. It's fruitless political changes associated with colonialism in the Arab or hadharim in India and Southeast Asia.