Tuesday, 29 November 2011
Roots of Terrorism
By Syukron Hadi and M. Ershad
Islam is peaceful religion, wrong in understanding textual statemen in qur'an couses fatal mistake in aplicate. A textual statement in the tradition can not be implemented as they are, but rather must be associated with the context. Ulil explained, at the time of the prophet expansive war is a normal thing to do and there are no international rules as they are now. The Prophet only continue that tradition. It is not logical to apply the doctrine of jihad is now a socio-political conditions are very much different from the Islamic community at that time.
"Killing Saifudin Zuhri in Ciputat, Tangerang, making battered terrorism. Then many people started asking about the recent history of terrorism. Is it true that terrorism is over? "So Saidiman (Liberal Islam Network activists) during the opening of public discussion" Global War on Terrorism "in Hall Student Center, State Islamic University (UIN) Jakarta. The event was organized by the Student Forum Chester (FORMACI) in cooperation with the Liberal Islam Network, Paramadina Waqf Foundation, Friedrich Naumann Stiftung and BEM-A Sociology of Religion UIN Jakarta.
Public discussion is a response to the capture of the terrorists began to Indonesia. Success Detachment 88 arrested and shot dead the terrorists make many people come to comment. Starting from frivolous comment until a serious discussion, including that performed Chester Student Forum. Chester students research institute is responding with a serial study of fundamentalism, radicalism and violence religious.
In a raid which successfully shot dead Saifudin Zuhri and Syahrir revealed two Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta students involved in the terror network. The fact is simply hitting the students and faculty-staff at UIN Jakarta conscious and subconscious they burned that Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, such as the assessment of the general public, is the central gate of Islamic civilization in Indonesia which has instituted many Muslim intellectuals.
It is true that the two students involved in UIN Jakarta terror network entirely outside the responsibility of UIN Jakarta as an institution of teaching and learning, because in a pew lectures UIN Jakarta never justify the movement of religious radicalism. The purpose of this public discussion other than to confirm it also aims to membincang in depth all aspects of terrorism by presenting three resource persons who are experts in all sorts of issues of terrorism, namely Sidney Jones (Senior Advisor to the International Crisis Ground), Noorhaidi Hasan (Islamic Fundamentalist movement Researcher and Radiakal in Indonesia and active teaching at UIN Jakarta and Jogjakarta) and Ulil Abshar-Abdalla (young Ulama NU).
Sidney, as the first resource persons, to reconstruct a well-established understanding of the roots of global terrorism who already ditelorkan by observers of terrorist movements. For him, the issue of terrorism is very complex.
In this discussion other than Sidney convey his ideas, he also presented a variety of important data about the movement of terrorism in Indonesia. To complement his ideas Sidney Louise Richardson cites a study of terrorism based on source and destination terrorism movement (what Terrorists want) in the complex. Then Sidney also borrowed the idea of Marc segments to understand the methods of recruitment, the network model and the way they organize the organization and its actions.
The second speaker, Noorhaidi Hasan, describing terrorism from different angles. The ideology of religious radicalism or terrorism, he said, has long roots. Starting from the ideology of the movement of salafism (Wahhabi) who always experienced growth based on changes in the socio-political conditions and the affair with swift currents of globalization. Peak, the ideology is changing the face into the Salafist Jihadists.
In Indonesia, the ideology is absorbed by the militant organization DI / TII are then more radical with the merger of several former Muslim fighters in Afghanistan. Upon their return to Indonesia, they continue the jihad in his own country with expertise about the ideology of jihad and they hold it steady. Then they got support from the international radical jihadist organization like Jemaah Islamiyah and al-Qaeda. Their first action is the Christmas bombing of 2000 which was followed by the first Bali bombing, and then the most recent action is to bomb the JW Marriot, Ritz Carlton, 2009.
While the third speaker, Ulil Abshar-Abdalla, stated that it is difficult refute the arguments of the adherents of radical Islamic ideology. According to him, they have the basic arguments that refer to the text of sharia that are recorded in religious practices of the Prophet. According Ulil, is wrong if we assume the offensive jihad as merely a product of modernity and of the meaning of jihad pelencengan taught by the Prophet. Prophet actually taught jihad. There are two kinds of jihad is taught by the Prophet, the first defensive jihad or jihad to defend themselves from attack non-Muslims or self defense, both are offensive jihad or jihad fighting or attacking non-Muslims, the war Khandak are concrete examples. Ulil confirms that this is an argument and legitimacy for radical groups to launch terrorist acts. Although it seems difficult to argue, this argument still has weaknesses and Ulil choose to ask participants to elaborate on this further in a question and answer session.
In a question and answer session, several participants immediately ask for clarification on the issue this fatwa and what seems to be counter-argument to refute the argument terror groups. One participant expressed his views on the dangers of applying the classical texts without looking at the context and argues that the current jihad is the jihad against poverty.
Ulil strengthen it by saying that there must be wisdom when we read a textual statement. According to him, a statement in the textual tradition can not be implemented as they are, but rather must be associated with the context. Ulil explained, at the time of the prophet expansive war is a normal thing to do and there are no international rules as they are now. The Prophet only continue that tradition. It is not logical to apply the doctrine of jihad is now a socio-political conditions are very much different from the Islamic community at that time. This relates to participants who questioned the function of religion in the present moment in which the terror acts in the name of religion increasingly rampant. One participant stated that the role of religion more confusing lately. According Ulil, to think how that religion functions as a driving force toward peace.
Noorhaidi emphasized the importance we move into the discourse of post-Islamism that redefine Islamic messages in a democratic and modern. According Ulil, many people who studied classical fiqh books that contain the charge of jihad but only a handful are doing acts of terror. That's because they understand, the doctrines it literally does so but can not be applied now. While Sidney insisted that clerics who oppose violence, especially in Indonesia, appear and speak at international level
On an international network in Indonesia terrorism movement, one participant compared the exposure of Sidney Jones and Hasan Noorhaidi which he opposed. Sidney assess the role of international relations in the movement of terrorism in Indonesia is not very significant, while Noorhaidi assume the contrary, very strong Middle Eastern influence in the movement of terrorism in Indonesia. It was clarified by both speakers. They say that what they put it together, it's just a different perspective. Sidney saw international contacts from the perspective of the operational and funding while Noorhaidi view of the ideological aspects and early emergence of terrorist movements in Indonesia.
One of the participants of this discussion as a forum to sue pendoktrinan and consider what is presented by the speaker just opinion only. Opinion is thought to be exaggerated by the media group owned by capitalist employers and the authorities to discredit Islam. Interpretations are made Ulil thought too free and irresponsible. Sidney Jones soon show evidence that what he had to say it is a fact and not mere opinion. Who died in the Marriott is a capitalist entrepreneurs, so they were actually the victims, not perpetrators as alleged questioner. From this participant statements, Noorhaidi increasingly convinced that the discourses of Islam conspiracies and victimization by the West is growing among young people and students. That thought is foolish discourses that actually opens the door for violent acts.
Finally, the discussion was closed with the conclusion that terrorism is a complex phenomenon that is not sufficiently explained by one or two factors only. But even then we could see some consistent pattern in recent acts of terror. Terrorism with all keabsurdannya is difficult to eradicate completely, but that does not mean he can not be prevented.