Analysis and thoughts on how the history of Islam in Indonesia is understoodthrough a number of theories. Aji Setiawan, for example, saw that coming Perlak SultanateIslam to the archipelago can be examined through three theories, namely the theory of Gujarat, Arab theory, and theory Persia. Gujarat theory considers that the origin of the arrival of Islam in Indonesia isGujarat India through the trade routes in the 13-14 century. This theory is usually muchused by experts from the Netherlands. One of his adherents, W.F. Stuterheimstates that Islam started to go into the archipelago in the 13th century based on
The first evidence of tombstones sultan of the kingdom of Pasai Ocean, namely Malik Al-Saleh inyear 1297. According to this theory, the introduction of Islam to the archipelago via the trade routesIndonesia-Cambay (India)-Middle East-Europe.
Persian theory is more focused on the reality of cultural similarities between peopleIndonesia at that time with Persian culture. For instance, the similarity conceptwahdatul form his Fanshuri Hamza al-Hallaj. While the theory of Arab opinionon the contrary. T.W. Arnold, one of his followers argued that the Arab tradersthat dominated the East-West trade since the 7th century or 8 also at the sameto the spread of Islam in the archipelago at the time. Other adherents of this theory, Naquib al-Attas see that the evidence of the coming of Islam to the archipelago is characterized by the Islamic karaktektypical, or so-called "general theory of the Islamization of the archipelago" basedthe literature of the Malay archipelago and world view. In addition to the three general theory above,There is another theory which holds that the coming of Islam to the archipelago originated from China, orcalled the theory of China.
Based on the exposure to the theories above, can be estimated that Islam has entered intoIndonesia since the 7th or 8th century AD In the 13th century, Islam has been growing rapidly. According tonote A. Hasymi, Sultanate Perlak is the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesiaestablished on 1 Muharam 225 H or 804 AD Empire is located in the region Perlak,East Aceh, NAD, Indonesia.The name of the Sultanate of Perlak as the beginning of history of Islam in Indonesia is lessso well known compared with the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean. However, the nameSultanate Perlak actually famous in Europe because of Marco Polo's visit in 1293.
a. The entry of Islamic history
Perlak sultanate was founded in 840 and ended in 1292. The process of establishmentnot independent of the influence of Islam in Sumatra. Before the Sultanate Perlak stand, inPerlak area is already standing Affairs Perlak the king and his people areHe descendant of Maharaja Pho La (Meurah Perlak Syahir Nuwi) as well as the descendants oftroops of followers.In this 840th year, the group numbered 100 people of the Middle East towards the beachSumatra led by skipper Caliphate. The group aims to tradeas well as bringing a number of preachers in charge to carry and spread Islam to thePerlak. In less than half a century, the king and the people leave the religion Perlaklong they (Hindu and Buddhist), who then volunteered in drovesembraced Islam.
Subsequent developments showed that one of his subordinates from HelmsmanCaliph, Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ja'far Sadiq mated with Makhdum Tansyuri, whichis the younger brother of Syahir Nuwi, King of Persia Affairs Perlak a thoroughbred. Of fruittheir marriage was born Alaiddin Sayyid Sultan Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah, who becamePerlak sultan of the Sultanate's first since 840. Its capital originally PerlakPerlak named Bandar Bandar Caliph then converted into a form of awardThe skipper of the Caliph services.
b. The period of Sunni-Shiite hostility
History of Islam in the Sultanate Perlak not immune from competition between Sunni groupsand Shia. Power struggle between two Muslim groups caused acivil war and bloodshed. Successive group win to takeover power from the hands of competitors.
The flow of Shiite came to Indonesia through the traders from Gujarat, Arabic, and Persian.They went first through the Sultanate Perlak with the full support of the dynastyFatimiah in Egypt. When the dynasty collapsed in 1268, relations between groupsShiites on the coast of Sumatra with Shiite groups in Egypt began to cut. This condition isled to Egypt's political constellation changed direction. Dynasty ordered Mamaluktroops led by Sheikh Ismail to go to the east coast of Sumatra with the aim
For additional information that the first king of the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean, Angry Siluwith a degree Malikul converted Saleh, who was originally a Hindu thenflow of Shiite Islam. Therefore be persuaded by Sheikh Ismail, Marah Siluthen adopts Syafii. Two followers of Anger Silu, Series Bring Rich and RichSyafii adopts, so that their name changed to Sidi Ali and Sidi ChiatuddinAli Hasanuddin. When ruling Angry Silu known as the king who is very anti towardsand followers of Shiite thought.
Sunnis began to enter the Sultanate Perlak, during the reign of sultan to-3,Alaiddin Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Abbas. After he died in 363 AH (913 AD),civil war between Shi'ites and Sunnis, which led to the empire inconditions without a leader. In the year 302 AH (915 AD), Shiites won the war.Alaiddin Maulana Syed Sultan Ali Shah of the flow of Shiite Mughat then holdsimperial power as the sultan to-4 (915-918). When the reign ended,upheaval between the Shiites and Sunnis, only this time it was wonby Sunni groups.
Period between the years 918 to 956 years of turmoil relatively significant.Only, in the year 362 AH (956 AD), after the 7th sultan, Sultan Abdul Makhdum AlaiddinMalik Shah Johan Sovereign dies, another struggle between the Shi'ite andSunnis for approximately four years. The difference, this time upheaval ended with thefaith peace of both. The Sultanate is then divided into two parts. First, theCoastal Perlak (Shi'a) headed by Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin (986-988). Second, thePerlak Outback (Sunni) led by Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin JohanSovereign (986-1023).
Both leadership is united again when one of the leaders of both regionsthese, namely Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin died. He died when Perlakdefeated by the kingdom of Srivijaya. This war conditions that evokethe spirit of re-unification of leadership in the Sultanate Perlak. Sultan MakhdumIbrahim Malik Shah Johan Alaiddin Sovereign, which initially only mastered PerlakOutback then set as the Sultan to-8 in the Sultanate Perlak. He continuedstruggle against the Srivijaya until the year 1006. Sultan to-8 is actually sensible flowSunni, but unfortunately have not found data that says what happens againturbulence between the two schools.
Before the founding of the Sultanate Perlak, in the State Perlak existing king, namelyPerlak Meurah Syahir Nuwi. However, data about the kings of State Perlak completehas not been found. While the list of sultans who once ruled the Sultanate of doubtare as follows:
1. Alaiddin Maulana Syed Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah (840-864)2. Alaiddin Sultan Maulana Syed Abdul Rahim Shah (864-888)3. Alaiddin Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Abbas (888-913)4. Alaiddin Maulana Syed Sultan Ali Shah Mughat (915-918)5. Makhdum Alaiddin Sultan Malik Shah Abdul Kadir Johan Sovereign (928-932)6. Makhdum Alaiddin Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign (932-956)7. Sultan Abdul-Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (956-983)8. Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (986-1023)9. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1023-1059)10. Malik Sultan Mansur Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1059-1078)11. Abdullah Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1078-1109)12. Malik Sultan Ahmad Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1109-1135)13. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1135-1160)14. Usman Malik Sultan Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1160-1173)15. Mohammed Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1173-1200)16. Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1200-1230)17. Makhdum Alaiddin Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign II (1230-126718. 18. Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1267-1292)Note: sultans above divided by two dynasties, the dynasties of Maulana Syed AbdulAziz Shah dynasty Johan and Sovereign, which is a descendant of the original Perlak Meurah(Syahir Nuwi).
Perlak of the 17th Sultan, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II JohanSovereign, do political friendship with neighboring countries. He marriedtwo daughters, namely: Princess Ratna Kamala was married to the King of the Kingdom of Malacca,Sultan Muhammad Shah (Parameswara) and the Princess was married to the King of AlgaeKingdom of Pasai Ocean, al-Malik al-Saleh.Perlak Sultanate ended after the 18th Sultan, Sultan Abdul Malik Makhdum AlaiddinSovereign Johan Aziz died in 1292. Sultanate Perlak then fusedwith the Indian Empire under the reign of sultan Pasai Pasai Ocean thatruled at the time, Sultan Malik al-Zahir Muhammad who is also the son ofal-Malik al-Saleh.
Prior to unite with the Kingdom of Samudra Pasai the Sultanate's territory Perlakonly covers the area around Perlak only. Today, the empire was located on the east coastAceh region are precisely located in the region Perlak, East Aceh, NAD,Indonesian.
5. Socio-Cultural life
Perlak known for its wealth of natural results are supported by the location is verystrategically. Moreover, Perlak is well known as waterproof timber, the timber speciesvery good for shipbuilding. Conditions such as this is what makes the tradersof Gujarat, Arabic, and Persian are interested in coming to this area. The entry of tradersare also well spread the teachings of Islam in the region. Their arrivalinfluence on the socio-cultural life of society Perlak at the time. Therefore, thePerlak community when it was introduced on how to trade.
At the beginning of the 8th century, Perlak known as a highly developed commercial port.Marriage model mixing is taking place in this area as a consequence ofmembaurnya between indigenous communities with immigrant communities. Groupintend to disseminate mission entrants Islamization by married womenlocal people. Actually not only that, mixed marriages are also intended todevelop trade wing of the settlers in this area.