Saturday, 26 November 2011

The entry of Islam into Indonesia

Islam is peaceful religion, one among many prove of it is islam religion has spread all over the world. This paper below will explain so clear about the history of spreading islam, expecially in Indonesia.

This paper does not intend to discuss introduction of Islam to every island in the archipelago of Nusantara, but merely focused on the introduction of Islam to the island of Sumatra and Java, because both regions are considered as samples for other parts of the archipelago. There are three theories that analyze the entry of Islam into the archipelago, Gujarat Theory, Theory Theory of Mecca and Persian. The third theory is trying to give answers to the problems of the introduction of Islam to the archipelago, with differences in opinion: First, regarding the introduction of Islam. Second, regarding the origin countries which are the intermediary or the source of Islamic teachings taking place. Third, the perpetrators spreaders or bearer of Islam to the archipelago.

Theory of Gujarat

This theory is called the Theory of Gujarat, starting from the origin country that brought Islam to the archipelago. The foundation stone of this theory is most likely Snouck Hurgronje, in his book L'Arabie et les Indes Neerlandaises, or the Revue de l'histoire des Religious, vol Ivil.Hurgronje focused his gaze to the Gujarat based: First, the lack of facts that explain the role of Arabs in the spread of Islam into the archipelago. Second, Indonesia-India trade relations have long been intertwined. Third, the oldest inscription of Islam found in Sumatra provides a link between Sumatra with Gujarat. 

View Snouck Hurgronje has a considerable influence on Western historians, and influential historians also against Indonesia. Gujarat theory generally states that Islam entered the archipelago in the 13th century. This opinion is based on the evidence of tombstones first Sultan of the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean, Sultan Malik al-Saleh who died in 1297. Opinion that said that the tombstone in the becorak Hinduistis Pasai reinforced Theory Gujarat (India). In addition mystical teachings of Islam that developed in the archipelago is recognized developed by Indian people who have embraced Islam.Of the various arguments put forward Gujarat theory by some historians, it appears that they are Hindu-centric analysis, because it assumes that all social change, political, economic, cultural and religions in the archipelago is not free from the influence of India.

Theory Mecca

Gujarat theory criticism and correction of Hamka who gave birth to a new theory, the Theory of Mecca. Hamka reject the view that Islam entered the archipelago in the 13th century and comes from Gujarat. Hamka more basing his views on the role of the Arabs as a bearer of Islam to the archipelago. Gujarat is expressed as a mere stopover, and Mecca as the center, or Egypt as a place of making the teachings of Islam.Analysis of different Hamka historians and orientalists, by adding the Shafi'i school of his observations on the problem, as a special school in Mecca and has the greatest influence in the archipelago. It is not discussed in depth by Western historians before.

In addition, Hamka reject an opinion stating that the new religion of Islam into the archipelago in the 13th century, because in the archipelago in the 13th century has stood the political power of Islam, namely the kingdom of Pasai Ocean. And he thinks it is impossible in a short time after the arrival of Muslims have been able to build a political force. So the introduction of Islam to the archipelago by Hamka not occur in the 13th century, but long before that, namely in the 7th century.This opinion is based on the role of Arabs in trading in Asia that began in the 2nd century BC. This role was never discussed by the adherents of Gujarat Theory. Overview of Gujarat eliminate the role of theory in the Arab nation and control of sea trade, which has long been familiar with Ocean Indonesia than any other nation. From the Arab geographer Abu Zaid al-Balkhi (934), Ibn Hauqal (975), and Maqdisi (985), we obtain information about the map of the earth that has been owned by the Arabs, in which there is Ocean Indonesia.If we look at the facts of this history, the Arabs have a map of the Earth that comes with the Indonesian Ocean, and master the sea route to the archipelago, so it is not surprising that in the year 674 has been established Islamic Arab settlements on the West coast of Sumatra. Moreover, this fact gives information about the occurrence of the archipelago-Arab relations long before the 13th century. Therefore it seems difficult to understand why supporters of Gujarat theory, just look at India-Archipelago by eliminating the Arab role in maritime trade, including mastery of the sea route to the archipelago.

If this kind of historical fact and considered it never happened, meaning the role of the Arab nation on the Indonesian people do not want to be recognized by historians and orientalists. They are more likely to reproduce information on the relations between India-Archipelago. Is the target information that is Hindu-centric history is to instill a love of intellectual Indonesia to pre-Islamic history in the archipelago?. If the target is the history of information influences the political stance of Indonesian intellectuals, Hamka fitting memorial to the view that aims to defy Snouck Hurgronje met Arab influence in the war in Aceh.

Besides brought by Arab traders, Hamka also states Nusantara people take the initiative to learn to sail to China, Hindustan, Red Sea, Jeddah Coast, even to build a new state in Malagasy (Madagascar). With this information, Hamka mastery of the sea trying to inform the ability of people archipelago at the time. This is usually not found in the writing of history by the Dutch colonial government, so read the Indonesian people as a nation are passive and do not move keluar.Hal is certainly in line with the politics of colonial peoples who do not want mental colony raised.
The theory is more focused his review on the Persian culture that lived in Indonesia among the Islamic community that is felt to have similarities with the Persians. Cultural similarities, among others:First, the 10th of Muharram or Ashura commemoration as a Shi'ite anniversary of the death of Husain. Usually commemorated by making porridge Shura. In Minangkabau the month of Muharram is called Hasan-Husayn.Second, the similarities between the teachings of the teachings of Sheikh Siti Jenar with Iranian Sufi teachings of Al-Hallaj, though al-Hallaj had died in 310H/922M, but his teachings continue to evolve in the form poetry, thus allowing Sheikh Siti Jenar who lived during the 16th century can be learn it.

Third, use of the term in the Iranian language of the Arabic alphabet spelling system, for signs of vowel sounds in the recitation of the Qur'an initial level.Theory Persian opposition from various parties, because if we adhere to the introduction of Islam in the 7th century, this means there during the reign of the Umayyad caliph. Meanwhile, when the Islamic leadership in the fields of politics, economy and culture are in Mecca, Medina, Damascus and Baghdad. So, do not allow for Persia to occupy the leadership of the Islamic world at that time.

* Sign and spread of Islam in West Java

 The entry of Islam into West Java is believed to be not free from commercial influence of the Islamic Arab traders. They are traded spices from the Moluccas and Bantam, so they must have stopped at one of the ports in West Java, Banten good, Cirebon and Sundanese Coconut.

Another consideration is the role of West Java that has been initiated since the existence of political power Taruma State in the 5th century, giving the impression that West Java is the oldest areas in Java, which plays a role of trade, it is impossible when in the 7th century did not speak in commerce.The process of the spread of Islam in West Java more is told through the gates of West Java, namely Cirebon. As where the entry of Catholics through the Sunda Kelapa port, most likely the entry of Islam also came from the West Indonesia. For Java is no doubt go through the west gate: Sunda Kelapa and Banten.

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