Saturday, 3 December 2011
The history of Islami in Spain (Spain)
ISLAM is peaceful religion - Muslims occupied Spain in the time of Caliph al-Walid (705-715 AD), one of the Umayyad caliphate based in Damascus, where Muslims had previously been controlled North Africa. In the process of the conquest of Spain there are three heroes of Islam that can be said to be the most meritorious of Tharif ibn Malik, Tariq ibn Ziyad and Musa ibn Nushair.
Muslims occupied Spain in the time of Caliph al-Walid (705-715 AD), one of the Bani Umayyad caliphate based in Damascus. Before the Spanish conquest, the Muslims had taken control of North Africa and make it as a province of Bani Umayyad dynasty, full mastery over North Africa took place at the time of Caliph Abdul Malik (685-705 AD). Caliph Abd al-Malik al-Numan ibn Hasan lift-Ghassani became governor in that area.
At the time of Caliph al-Walid, Hasan ibn Nu'man ibn Musa has been replaced by Nushair. In an age of al-Walid, Moses ibn Nushair expand his territory by occupying Algeria and Morocco. In addition, he also perfected the conquest of the regions of the former power of the Berbers in the mountains, so they declare loyalty and promised not to create chaos-chaos as they once did before.
Conquest of the North African region from the first time defeated until it becomes a province of Bani Umayyad Caliphate take as long as 53 years, starting from the year 30 AH (during the reign of Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan) until the year 83 AH (the time of al-Walid). Before Islam was defeated and then occupied, in this region there are pockets of the Roman empire's power base, the Gothic kingdom. The kingdom is often incite people to riot and opposed to Islamic rule.
After this area really can be mastered, the Muslims began to focus his attention on conquering Spain. Thus, North Africa become a springboard for the conquest of the Muslims in Spain. In the process there are three heroes of the Spanish conquest of Islam that can be said to be the most meritorious led forces units there.They are Tharif ibn Malik, Tariq ibn Ziyad and Musa ibn Nushair. Tharif can be called a pioneer and investigator. He crossed the strait that lies between Morocco and the European continent with a single army, five hundred of whom were horsemen, they boarded four ships provided by Julian. In the raid Tharif not get meaningful resistance.
He won and returned to North Africa brought the spoils that are not few in number.Encouraged by the success Tharif and chaos that occurs in the body of the ruling Visigothic kingdom in Spain at the time, as well as a great encouragement to gain the spoils of war, Moses ibn Nushair in the year 711 AD sent troops to Spain as many as 7000 people under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziyad . Tariq ibn Ziyad is more widely known as the conqueror of Spain when they were larger and more tangible results. His force consisted of most of the barbarian tribes that are supported by Musa ibn Nushair and some Arabs who sent the Caliph al-Walid. It then crossed the Strait of troops under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziyad.
A mountain of Tariq and his men first landed and set up his army, known by the name of Gibraltar (Jabal Tariq). With mastered this area, then opened the door widely to enter Spain. In the battle at a place called Bakkah, King Roderick can be defeated. From there, Tariq and his army continued to conquer the important cities, such as Cordova, Granada and Toledo (capital of Gothic empire at that time). Before Tariq conquered the city of Toledo, he asked for additional troops to Musa ibn Nushair in North Africa.
Moses sent additional troops of 5000 personnel, so the number of troops entirely Tariq 12,000 people. This amount is not comparable to the Gothic army much larger, 100,000 people. The first victory of Tariq ibn Ziyad is achieved by making way for the conquest of the region more broadly. To that end, Moses ibn Nushair feel the need to involve themselves in the battle arena with the intention of helping the struggle Tariq. With a great army, he set off across the strait, and one by one city in its path can be conquered.
After Moses conquered Sidonia, Karmona, Seville, and Merida as well as defeating the ruling royal Gothic, Theodomir in Orihuela, she was joined by Tariq at Toledo. Furthermore, they managed to control all important cities in Spain, including its northern part, from Saragossa to Navarre. The next wave of territorial expansion came during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz year 99 H/717 AD This time the target is intended to control the area around the mountain Pyrenia and Southern France. Entrusted to the chief of Al-Samah, but his efforts failed and he himself was killed in the year 102 H.
Furthermore, the chief handed over to Abdullah ibn Abd al-Ghafiqi. With his troops, he attacked the city Bordesu, Poiter, and from here he tried to attack the city of Tours. However, between the city of Tours Poiter and that she was detained by Charles Martel, so that the invasion of France failed and the troops he led retreat back to Spain. After that, there are still attacks, such as the Avirignon year 734 AD, to Lyons in 743 AD, and the islands located in the Mediterranean Majorca, Corsia, Sardinia, Creta, Rhodes, Cyprus and parts of Sicily also fell into Islam at the hands of Bani Umayyad era.
The second wave of the largest invasion of the Muslims which motion starts at the beginning of the 8th century AD, has been reaching out to all of Spain and extends far reaches of Central France and the important parts of Italy. The victories achieved Muslims look so easy. It can not be separated from the external and internal factors are favorable. What is meant by an external factor is a condition contained in his own country Spain. During the Spanish conquest by the Muslims, the social, political, and economic development of this country are in a sorry state.
Politically, the Spanish region torn apart and divided into several small countries. Along with the Gothic rulers being intolerant of religious sects that embraced by the authorities, namely the flow of Monophysites, especially against other faiths, Judaism. Adherents of Judaism which is the largest part of the population of Spain was forced to be baptized according to the Christian religion. Are not willing to be tortured, and brutally murdered. People were divided into the class system, so the situation overwhelmed by poverty, oppression, and lack of equal rights.
In a situation like that, the liberator of the oppressed awaiting the arrival of interpreters, and interpreters pembebasnya they found the people of Islam. With regard to the Amer Ali, as quoted by Imamuddin said, when Africa (East and West) enjoy the convenience in terms of material, togetherness, justice, and welfare, neighbors in the peninsula of Spain is in a sad state under the rule of iron fist ruler Visighotic. On the other hand, the kingdom is in turmoil, which inflicts the suffering of the people. As a result of cruel treatment, the colonies became an important Jewish places of resistance and rebellion.
Divisions within the country Spanish is a lot of help to the success of the intervention of Islam in the year 711 AD The split was very much coraknya, and existed long before the Gothic kingdom stand. Economic circumstances exacerbate the political divisions of society. When Islam came to Spain, the economic society in a state of paralysis. In fact, when Spain was under Roman rule, thanks to the fertility of the soil, agriculture developed rapidly. Similarly, mining, industry and commerce as it is supported by good transport facilities. However, after the Spanish under the authority of the kingdom of the Goths, crippled the economy and public welfare decreases.
Hektaran left stranded with no uncultivated land, some factories closed, and between one region and other regions hardest-hit due to the roads do not receive treatment. Poor social conditions, economic, and religious was mainly caused by the chaotic political situation. The worst conditions occurred in the reign of King Roderick, the last King of the Goths who defeated Islam. Early destruction of the kingdom when King Roderick Ghoth is moving its capital from Seville to Toledo, while Witiza, who was a ruler of the territory of Toledo, was dismissed just like that. This situation provoked anger from Oppas and Achila, brother and son Witiza.
Both then rose gather strength to overthrow Roderick. They went to North Africa and joined with the Muslims. Meanwhile there is also conflict between the Queen of Julian Roderick, a former ruler of Septah. Julian also joined with the Muslims in North Africa and support the efforts of Muslims to master Spanish, Julian even lend four ships used by Tharif, Tariq and Musa. This benefit is that the Muslim army consisting of soldiers Roderick oppressed slaves no longer have the spirit of war Moreover, the Jews who had been depressed also held a fellowship and provide assistance for the struggle of the Muslims.As is the internal factor is a condition contained in the ruling body, tokon figures of warriors and soldiers of Islam who are involved in the conquest of Spain in particular.
The leaders are powerful figures, army compact, united, and confident. They were capable, brave, and steadfast in the face of every issue. Equally important are the teachings of Islam that indicated the soldiers of Islam, namely tolerance, fraternity and mutual help. The attitude of religious tolerance and brotherhood contained in the person of the Muslims that led to the Spanish population welcomed the Islamic presence there. (AP)